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ATS 8A - 1 The Art of Tech Support John Abbott College Ethical Issues in Cyberspace and in the Workplace M. E. Kabay, PhD, CISSP Director of Education,

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Presentation on theme: "ATS 8A - 1 The Art of Tech Support John Abbott College Ethical Issues in Cyberspace and in the Workplace M. E. Kabay, PhD, CISSP Director of Education,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ATS 8A - 1 The Art of Tech Support John Abbott College Ethical Issues in Cyberspace and in the Workplace M. E. Kabay, PhD, CISSP Director of Education, NCSA President, JINBU Corp Copyright © 1997 JINBU Corp. All rights reserved

2 ATS 8A - 2 Ethics in Technical Support l Intellectual Property Rights l Privacy and Confidentiality l Free Speech in Cyberspace l Children in Cyberspace l Professionalism in Cyberspace l Criminal Hackers l Employee Rights in the Workplace l 10 Commandments of Computer Ethics

3 ATS 8A - 3 Intellectual Property Rights l Copyright law – Authors property by default – Employment implies ownership of work – Illegal copying is felony l Stealing copies of books and programs – deprives author/owner of return on effort – discourages intellectual effort – loss of control over property

4 ATS 8A - 4 VIDEO: Its Just Not Worth the Risk Software Publishers Association Washington, DC

5 ATS 8A - 5 Why Not Steal Software? Classic excuses l Everyones doing it. l We wont get caught. l Its the software companys fault: if they dont want theft, they should charge less. l If they dont want their software stolen, they should make it harder to copy. l But I need it and I dont want to pay for it. l It doesnt hurt anyone. l It only hurts a companyI wouldnt steal it from an individual. l No software should ever be copyrightedit should always be free.

6 ATS 8A - 6 Privacy and Confidentiality l Privacy – What can be known by whom l Confidentiality – What can properly be done with information about individuals and organizations l Control over personal information – How one can inspect and correct records about oneself

7 ATS 8A - 7 Privacy What can be known by whom l Medical records l Political, religious, family plans, sexual orientation l Social Security Number / Social Insurance Number l Financial affairs l Public record (property, education, criminal record

8 ATS 8A - 8 Confidentiality What can be done with information l Transfer to authorized users l Use for statistical analysis l Guard against unauthorized disclosure l Tech support must safeguard client confidentiality

9 ATS 8A - 9 Confidentiality (contd) Case studies of violation of confidentiality l Victoria, BC: police officer (1995) – used police computers to locate home addresses of abortion clinic workers – penalized l Miami, FL: public health worker (Nov 1996) – stole copies of disks with records of 4,000 HIV+ patients – used them in bars to give advice on whether to go out with affected people – fired

10 ATS 8A - 10 Control Over Personal Information l Credit and bank card leave trail in cyberspace l Credit bureaus keep records of questionable accuracy l Insurance bureaus share information l Right to see and comment on all records about yourself

11 ATS 8A - 11 Free Speech Issues in Cyberspace l US First Amendment Rights l Problems of Community l International Differences l Pornography l Bombs and Viruses

12 ATS 8A - 12 US First Amendment rights l In US, no pre-emptive limits on speech l Limitations on 1st-Amendment rights – definitions of speech – prima facie evidence of harmful effects – incitement to violence not tolerated

13 ATS 8A - 13 Problems of Community l In US., generally unrestricted access by adults to legal materials (not child porno, obscenity) l Community standards can limit display or sale l KEY: WHICH COMMUNITY DEFINES STANDARDS? l 1994: Nashville postal inspector & CA BBS – Knowingly downloaded well-marked porn – Filed federal complaint on wire-transfer of pornography – BBS operators convicted under Tennessee law -- while living in California – Operators lost their appeal

14 ATS 8A - 14 International Differences How to reconcile conflicts among national moral standards and legal systems in cyberspace? l Canada: limits on hate speech l UK: bans on public commentary about trials l China: national intranet bars access to Western news media l Indonesia: limitations on access to Internet sites discussing East Timor l Saudi Arabia: concern over sites dealing with womens liberation

15 ATS 8A - 15 Pornography l Newsgroups:[anything at all]__ l WWW sites & BBSs l Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory – US. DOE computers – 10 Mb pornographic files – public access – employee fired l Gross exaggerations in popular press – Carnegie-Mellon scandal – relatively small % total information transfer

16 ATS 8A - 16 Bombs and Viruses l Libraries, Internet sites, publications & BBSs have dangerous info – instructions on how to make bombs, weapons – detailed instructions on making computer viruses, Trojans, logic bombs l Why would anyone post such information? – perceived as interesting, educational – fun, part of belonging to club – political ideology – belief that what is not illegal must be right – mindless opposition to authority l Why would anyone stop such postings?

17 ATS 8A - 17 Children in Cyberspace l Benefits l Dangers l Protection l Automated Net Filters

18 ATS 8A - 18 Children in Cyberspace: Benefits l Commercial on-line services – moderated childrens chat lines – childrens forums – educational services l Reference areas – encyclopaedias – on-line articles l Interaction with decent adults – moderated discussion groups – children get refs for homework – 13 yr-old sysop in anti-virus forum

19 ATS 8A - 19 Children in Cyberspace: Dangers l Access to newsgroups – neo-Nazi and other racists – outright lunatics – perverts of various descriptions l Naked ladies on-line – photographs freely accessible on Net – but also available at corner stores l seduction by paedophiles – 50 yr-old man tricked 14 yr-old girl into meeting – airplane tickets sent secretly to kids

20 ATS 8A - 20 Protecting Kids in Cyberspace Parental involvement! l Awareness of the issues l Education of their children l Integration of ethical issues in computer classes at school l Discussion among parents and children of activities on the Net

21 ATS 8A - 21 Automated Net Filters Prevent access to parentally-restricted areas l Techno-fix (sometimes viewed as challenge by kids) l SafeSurf(TM) ( l Microsystems Software--CyberPatrol ( l Trove Investments--Net Nanny ( l Solid Oak Software--CYBERsitter ( l SurfWatch (

22 ATS 8A - 22 Professionalism in Cyberspace l Selling on the Net l Netiquette l Public Relations Nightmares l Data Leakage l Encryption and the ITAR l Pornography l Firewalls l Denial of Service l Concluding Remarks

23 ATS 8A - 23 Selling Products and Services l Nothing inherently unethical Problems include: l Immortal messages (need expiration date) l Inaccurate messages (need digital signature) l Inauthentic messages (need non-repudiation) l Unwanted messages (need good judgement)

24 ATS 8A - 24 Netiquette for Beginners l World-wide web--Marketing the right way l Legitimate mailing lists – by request – or by permission (May I send you...) l Junk – unsolicited – who pays? – denial of service – outrage from many recipients – serious business consequences

25 ATS 8A - 25 Spamming the Net l Dropping Spam on moving fan blades l Sending large numbers of identical messages to many news groups or addresses l Many readers get several related news groups l Annoys members, uses bandwidth l Severe consequences – hate – mail bombing – removal of Internet access – deletion of all future messages – expulsion from new groups

26 ATS 8A - 26 Spamming the Net: Case Studies l Canter and Siegel (1993) – Green Card Lottery legal advice – 2,000 news groups and 200,000--2,000,000 recipients – many received multiple copies – violated rules of the news groups l Responses – complaints to C&Ss service provider – mail bombing of C&S mailbox – crashed their service provider – cancelbots

27 ATS 8A - 27 Spamming the Net: Case Studies Anonymous executive writing in Network World (1994) l Posted advertising to 20 news groups l Thought people would be interested l bombs l 800 number posted in groups l Thousands of obscene phone calls l Receptionist quit l All 800 calls sent directly to his phone l Nearly destroyed his career

28 ATS 8A - 28 Market Data Collection: Ethical Issues l Point of sale data capture l Credit records l Medical records l Compilations of addresses l Net usage statistics l Snitchbots

29 ATS 8A - 29 Public Relations Nightmares l Identifying employees is easy from headers – corporate names in domain field – e.g., – can be forged l Lack of professionalism a killer – flaming people in professional news groups – spamming l Consequences can be severe – kill-files – hat – boycotts

30 ATS 8A - 30 Did I say that?? l Covert Ads l Flamewars l Shills l Spoofs

31 ATS 8A - 31 Covert Ads l Forums, newsgroups may have strict standards l Responses should be technical and helpful l Do not introduce company name and product without clear benefit to recipient l Repeated marketing hyperbole in technical forum repels potential customers l Beware of posting superficially-objective responses that are slanted: will be nailed

32 ATS 8A - 32 Flamewars l Technology insulates some people from empathy l Not everyone capable of writing with subtlety and sensitivity l Flamewars are written shouting matches l Avoid ad hominem remarks – comments on intelligence or competence – imputation of motives – statements claiming to know other peoples thoughts – outright verbal abuse

33 ATS 8A - 33 Shills l Employees who write as if they were customers l All employees should identify themselves as such if information bears on their credibility l Such tactics backfire – strong objections to dishonesty – perpetrators locked out of forums – great abuse heaped on individuals and employers – long term distrust

34 ATS 8A - 34 Spoofs l Impersonation of others l Writing bad things about competitors l Can be used as industrial sabotage l Possibly actionable

35 ATS 8A - 35 Spoofs: Case Study ReplyNet vs Promo: October 1995 l Promo Enterprises is mass – sent junk to 171,000 recipients – listed REPLY.NET as return address – Promo has recently announced competition with ReplyNet auto-reply service l ReplyNet Inc. provides non-objectionable advertising on Net – ReplyNet received 100s of complaints – sent apologies but largely rejected – damage to reputation as responsible service

36 ATS 8A - 36 Spoofs: Case Study (contd) ReplyNet initiated lawsuit: l Violations of US. federal law – Forgery – Trademark violation l Damages payable to ReplyNet – $5-$10 for each of 171,000 people l Refunds for on-line time to all unwilling recipients l May be a case of industrial sabotage (spamotage in John Schwartzs phrase-- Washington Post) l Settled out of court on generous terms

37 ATS 8A - 37 USENET Etiquette l Lurk before you leap: learn specific style l Stick to the forum/section subject area l Make messages concise l Quote only relevant text from previous message l Respect copyright laws l Dont flame people l Avoid profanity, ethnic/religious slurs, etc. l On USENET, everything you write may be archived and available forever

38 ATS 8A - 38 Cyberpaths l Virus Writers l Criminal Hackers l Theft of Services

39 ATS 8A - 39 Virus Writers l 13,000 virus variants (1997) l Most are trivial modifications of existing viruses – children – wannabees – fools l Some virus writers are sociopaths – Dark Avenger (Bulgaria) l Others are unaware of consequences

40 ATS 8A - 40 Criminal Hackers VIDEO: Unauthorized Access by Annaliza Savage

41 ATS 8A - 41 Criminal Hackers (contd) Hacker philosophy / cant l Information Wants to be Free l No limitations on posting information l No intellectual property rights – No limits on retrieving information – Software should be free

42 ATS 8A - 42 Criminal Hackers (contd) Moral relativists l Morality = preference l Everyones preference morally equivalent l Offended by criticism l Outraged by legal pursuit

43 ATS 8A - 43 Criminal Hackers (contd) Theft of Services l Many ways to steal services – Phone fraud – Voic invasion – System misappropriation l Genuine losses – Payments to foreign governments – Obligation to pay for stolen phone calls – Decreased access to resources – Expensive work to re-establish trusted computing base

44 ATS 8A - 44 Criminal Hackers (contd) Identity and Responsibility l Currently no non-repudiable I&A l No human society can function well without stable identity l Impossible to bring consequences to bear on malefactors l Disaster to depend on electronic messages as guide to popular will l Anonymous r ers circumvent I&A l Arguments about benefits / necessity of anonymity – totalitarian regimes – cases of abuse and probable pursuit

45 ATS 8A - 45 Employee Rights in the Workplace l Privacy Issues l Harassment l Fighting a Crooked Boss l Blowing the Whistle

46 ATS 8A - 46 Privacy Issues l Must answer employment application forms absolutely truthfully and completely l But interviewer has no right to ask personal questions unrelated to job – Political beliefs – Religious affiliation – Family plans (pregnancy, children) – Sexual orientation l Corporate phone calls usually viewed as private (check policy) l Corporate usually viewed as corporate property (check policy)

47 ATS 8A - 47 Harassment Unacceptable behaviour l Abusive language l Racial, sexual innuendos and behaviour l Demeaning behaviour (e.g., demanding services not part of job) l Hostile environment (e.g., pinups on wall, swastikas, KKK paraphernalia)

48 ATS 8A - 48 Harassment (contd) Taking charge of the problem yourself l Document problems in detail using diaries, notes, photographs l Contact lawyer specializing in civil rights cases l Use official organizational procedures for complaint l If no satisfaction, file grievance through union l File complaint with human rights commissions l File civil litigation

49 ATS 8A - 49 Fighting a Crooked Boss l Never a legal obligation to perform illegal act l Document situation in detail (as above) l Contact a lawyer l Verify that personal safety not in jeopardy l Ensure witnesses if possible l Inform superiors if reasonable expectation they are honest l Contact police or regulators if necessary

50 ATS 8A - 50 Blowing the Whistle l Identify appropriate authority l Document case l Obtain legal advice l Lay case before authorities l Lose job l Fight wrongful dismissal

51 ATS 8A Commandments of Computer Ethics l [1] Harm: Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. l [2] Interference: Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work. l [3] Snooping: Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's computer files. l [4] Theft: Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. l [5] Lying: Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. l [6] Copyright violations: Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.

52 ATS 8A Commandments of Computer Ethics l [7] Unauthorized use: Thou shalt not use other people's computer resources without authorization. l [8] Theft of intellectual property: Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output. l [9] Social consequences: Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. l [10] Consideration and respect: Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow creatures.

53 ATS 8A - 53 InfoSec & Ethics Information l National Computer Security Association – – any to l NCSA Web Page links to – Computer Ethics Institute – Electronic Messaging Association – Books on computer ethics

54 ATS 8A - 54 Homework: l Read Ten Questions for Parents and Children – Discuss with your family or with friends – Write down your thoughtful comments on each question. l Read and summarize Totem and Taboo in Cyberspace and submit your notes for credit l Answer all the review questions from the instructor l Submit your review questions and comments no later than the date & time indicated by your instructor: 09:00 Tuesday 22 April at front desk. _____________________________

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