Presentation on theme: "UN - HABITAT GC – Side Event 21 April 2015 Elizabeth Ssendiwala Gender & Youth Coordinator, IFAD-ESA Harnessing the youth demographic dividend for sustainable."— Presentation transcript:
UN - HABITAT GC – Side Event 21 April 2015 Elizabeth Ssendiwala Gender & Youth Coordinator, IFAD-ESA Harnessing the youth demographic dividend for sustainable rural ‐ urban development
Outline Who are the Young People? Definitions & Demographics Policy context Unemployment and Poverty Youth & Agriculture: Opportunity for rural-urban development Issues and potential solutions Investing in Young People: IFAD’s Guidance Note on Youth
Who are the Young People: Definitions No universal definition: UN: 15 to 24 years AU: 15 to 35 Difference within & across African countries Kenya: 18 - 35 Ghana: 15 – 35 Ethiopia: 15 – 29
Who are the Young People Youth bulge: 1.8 billion youth globally (10 and 24) About nine out of 10 people between the ages 10 and 24 live in less developed countries Youth (aged 15 to 24) constitute slightly more than 32% of Sub-Saharan Africa’s population FAO estimates - 70% of youth in SSA reside in rural areas Youth not homogeneous: gender, marital status, level of education, legal status, rural vs. urban Given the youth bulge: i)Will the developing economies offer decent jobs ii)Will they take advantage of the ‘demographic window’ to eradicate poverty?
Policy Context: National Youth Policies As of April 2014: Out of 198 countries, 122 (62%) had a national youth policy, up from 99 (50%) in 2013. Across all continents, 37 states (19%) are either developing a new or revising their current youth policy, 31 countries have no national youth policy at the moment (16%) - Of those, 14 are in Africa, 9 in Asia, 5 in the Americas, and 3 in Europe Need to involve youth in Policy Designs and Reforms – Giving youth a voice / representation in policy and governance arenas
Unemployment & Poverty Globally, about 75 million are young women & men Poverty - most obvious consequence: 72% of the youth in Africa live with less than USD 2 per day The highest rates of poverty are observed among young women & young people living in rural areas
Youth and Agriculture While formal sector offers scope for creating jobs and raising incomes for youth, rural enterprises also provide important income-earning opportunities & can mitigate against rural/urban migration. Youth face particular constraints in gaining access to inputs & resources: Limited access to land Access to Finances for Agriculture Insufficient access to Knowledge, information and education Limited voice in Policy dialogue Innovation and Technologies extension services and social capital
Opportunities – Potential to transform Agric. Youth are Innovators: They bring talent and creativity Linking Agriculture and Technology Youth more likely to adopt new technologies & innovations in Agri. They have Energy, vigor and are ambitious Higher education level than older farmers Future of agric. - aging farmers (60 yrs in Africa
Limited access to Land Issues Lack of information Inheritance o fragmented & unviable land parcels o landless or secondary rights users o life expectancy is increasing Adult small-holder farmers have small parcels of land Cultural discrimination against young women o rights channeled through their male relatives / Marital Status Potential Solutions Leasing land rather than relying on inheritance Change mindset towards agric. as a business
Access to Finances for Agriculture Issues Access to capital and credit for smallholders especially youth in Africa is a perennial problem Financial providers rarely have products suitable for young people Most MFIs require loan guarantees (land titles, steady employment, personal guarantors, group guarantees Inadequate finances hinder access to agric. inputs (improved seeds, fertilizer, mechanization etc) Potential Solutions Innovative collateral schemes (Mshwari; social capital) Credit guarantee fund Crop insurance Capacity for financial providers
Insufficient access to Knowledge, information and education Issues Inadequate education limits productivity & skills acquisition Insufficient access to knowledge & information hinders Potential Solutions Capacity building Mentoring for entrepreneurship (e.g IFAD’s Household methodologies) Appropriate education & training policies (emphasis on entrepreneurship) Extension services for youth (e.g FFS & Junior Farmer Field Schools; Mukulima Young)
Limited access to markets Issues Market structures often do not favour young people Youth are usually not sufficiently organized and/or lack experience to counter the strong market actors Inadequate knowledge of how markets work Young rural women face additional difficulties Potential Solutions Use ICTs for market info Train youth to reduce post- harvest losses Training on quality standards Provide basic infrastructure (e.g roads)
Innovation and Technologies Youth cannot do agriculture using the hoe Need to create room for innovation Support mechanization at all levels Use of ICT
Investing in Young People: IFAD’s Guidance Note Involve youth in project/program design process; Socio-economic analyses on youth specific opportunities and constraints; Comprehensive approach to promoting youth’s development in general and decent work; Mainstream youth considerations across components and sectors Enable youth’s participation in the projects’ management & organizational set-ups Adopt M&E systems that report on data disaggregated by age.