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Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups

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Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups"— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups
21/10/99 Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups

2 Origin of organic compounds
21/10/99 Origin of organic compounds Naturally occurring organic compounds are found in plants, animals, and fossil fuels All of these have a plant origin All of these rely on the “fixing” of C from CO2 Synthetic organic compounds are derived from fossil fuels or plant material

3 C C C C C Introduction Most current research focuses on Organic
21/10/99 Introduction Most current research focuses on Organic Originally from “organic” meaning life Not just chemistry of life, chemistry of carbon Exceptions: oxides of carbon (CO2, CO) carbonates,bicarbonates(NaHCO3,CaCO3) cyanides (NaCN, etc) C C C One C with no H, or with metal Carbon can form four bonds… C C

4 Carbon forms four bonds
21/10/99 Carbon forms four bonds Carbon can form four bonds, and forms strong covalent bonds with other elements This can be represented in many ways …

5 21/10/99 Functional groups Functional groups are parts of molecules that result in characteristic features About 100 functional groups exist, we will focus on about 10 Useful to group the infinite number of possible organic compounds E.g. the simplest group is hydrocarbons Made up of only C and H Not really a functional “group” Further divided into: Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes, Aromatics

6 21/10/99 Hydrocarbons Alkanes C C Alkenes C C Alkynes C C Aromatics

7 Functional groups Read 1012 - 1014
21/10/99 Functional groups Read You will need to memorize family name and associated general structure (use study notes: includes ether group) Handout Molecular model kits Build this structure: Assignment: in groups build each of the “Examples” in table 24.1 Each member must have the exact same molecule (thus you must agree on structure) Show me the structure(s) after building each

8 Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl
21/10/99 Hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl There are other names that describe patterns of atoms that are parts of functional groups. “Hydroxyl” refers to –OH “Carbonyl” refers to C=O “Carboxyl” refers to COOH Q: which functional groups contain a hydroxyl group? A carbonyl group? A carboxyl group? Hydroxyl: alcohols, carboxylic acids. Carbonyl: aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, amides, esters. Carboxyl: carboxylic acids Note that properties such as boiling and melting point change due to functional groups For more lessons, visit

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