Presentation on theme: "Organic Chemistry-1. Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon- containing compounds and their properties."— Presentation transcript:
Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon- containing compounds and their properties.
Compounds are broken down into 2 general categories: Inorganic Compounds: – Do not contain carbon
Timberlake LecturePLUS4 Organic Compounds Contain significant amounts of carbon. are mostly composed of 4 elements: H, O, N, C honk Have covalent bonds Have low melting points Have low boiling points Burn in air (oxygen) Are soluble in nonpolar solvents Form large molecules
Origin of organic compounds Naturally occurring organic compounds are found in plants, animals, and fossil fuels Synthetic organic compounds are derived from fossil fuels or plant material
Carbon: Carbon is essential to life for several reasons: – It can form strong stable covalent bonds – It can form up to 4 chemical bonds – It can form multiple bonds
Hydrocarbons: Contain C and H only
1.Hydrocarbons C C C AlkanesAlkenes AlkynesAromatics
Alkanes Alkanes Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Hydrocarbon chains where all the bonds between carbons are SINGLE bonds Have 4 bonds to every carbon (C)atom Are nonpolar molecules Saturated General formula: [C n H 2n+2 ], where n is the number of C atoms in the compound. Name uses the ending –ane Name uses the ending –ane
12 I nternational U nion of P ure and A pplied C hemistry eye-you-pac colloquially: Devised following WWII ca Nomenclature
Timberlake LecturePLUS13 IUPAC Names Name # carbons condensed formulas Methane1 CH 4 Ethane2C 2 H 6 Propane3 C 3 H 8 Butane4 C 4 H 10 Pentane5 C 5 H 12 Hexane 6 C 6 H 14
Timberlake LecturePLUS14 Structural Formulas H H H C H H H CH 4, methane Each pair of electrons is shown as a line in the structural formula.
Timberlake LecturePLUS15 More Alkanes Condensed Structural Formulas Ethane H C C H CH 3 CH 3 H H H Propane CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 H H HH H H HHH C C C
1.1.1.a. Alkyl Groups Alkyl group s are obtained when one H is removed from an alkane
Timberlake LecturePLUS Alkyl Groups H H C CH 3 methyl H H H H C C CH 3 CH 2 ethyl H H
Shown as R- in general Name: replace -ane ending of alkane with -yl ending – CH 3 is methyl (from methane) – CH 2 CH 3 is ethyl (from ethane) – CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 is propyl (from propane) CH 3 Cl methyl chloride CH 2 CH 3 Br ethyl bromide
Cycloalkanes Cycloalkanes are alkanes having carbon atoms that form a ring. The two ends of the carbon chain are attached in a ring in a cyclic hydrocarbon General formula: C n H 2n
Structure is shown as a regular polygon with the number of vertexes equal to the number of Cs. H 2 C CH 2 or H 2 C CH 2 cyclobutane C 4 H 8
to name, prefix the name of the corresponding open-chain alkane with cyclo-. Cyclopropane C 3 H 6 Cyclobutane C 4 H 8 Cyclopentane C 5 H 10 Cyclohexane C 6 H 12
1.1.3.Alkenes: hydrocarbons that contain a carbon- carbon double bond. the simplest member is ethene (ethylene).
No. of Carbon Atoms in One Molecule Alkene Member Structure of One Molecule 2 ethene (C 2 H 4 ) 3 propene (C 3 H 6 ) 4 butene (C 4 H 8 ) H H C H H C H H C H H H C H C H H H C H H C H C H H C
General formula: [C n H 2n ], where n is the number of C atoms in the compound. names of alkenes end with –ene.
alkynes: hydrocarbons containing a carbon- carbon triple bond. Acetylene, the simplest alkyne. -yne as a suffix indicates an alkyne General formula is C n H 2n-2.
Alkynes: C n H 2n-2 C 2 H 2 HC CH ethyne (acetylene) C 3 H 4 CH 3 C CH propyne (methylacetylene)
1.2.Aromatic hydrocarbons: A special class of cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons. Called as aromatic hydrocarbons, because of pleasant odor Also called as arenes.
– simplest aromatic is benzene (C 6 H 6 ) – or – Benzene is a six-carbon ring, with alternating double and single bonds
One derivative of Benzene is called phenylethene, or commonly named STYRENE. Foamed styrene is trademarked by Dow Chemicals as styrofoam Other manufacturers usually just called foam cups CHCH 2
THE END!!! Dont forget checking out Organic Chemistry- 2.