2.08 Law of the Land Why .08 BAC? BAC limit saves lives In single vehicle crashes, the relative fatality risk for drivers with blood alcohol content between .05 and .10 is over 11 times greater than for drivers with a BAC of zero.BAC limit saves livesAs your blood alcohol content level rises, so does your risk of being involved in a fatal crash. Make the right choice.Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
3How Your Body Reacts to Alcohol BRAIN. Impaired function and judgment ability.LUNGS. Infection; breathing can stop.HEART. Irregular heartbeat.LIVER. Alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis.STOMACH. Irritation, peptic ulcers, bleeding lesions, cancer.INTESTINES & PANCREAS. Intestinal tract and colon damage, inflammation, ulcers, and cancer.BONES & MUSCLES. Weaker and thinner bones (osteoporosis); weaker and uncoordinated muscles.BRAIN. Alcohol depresses nerve cells impairing brain function.LUNGS. Large amounts of alcohol lower resistance to infection or can cause breathing to stop.HEART. Alcohol impairs the heart muscles’ ability to pump blood, leading to abnormal heart function and irregular heartbeat.LIVER. Chronic heavy drinking may cause alcoholic hepatitis (inflammation and destruction of the liver cells) and then cirrhosis (irreversible lesions, scarring and destruction of liver cells).STOMACH. Alcohol irritates the stomach and can lead to peptic ulcers, bleeding lesions and cancer.INTESTINES & PANCREAS. Alcohol can impair the breakdown and absorption of nutrients by damaging the cells lining the intestinal tract and colon, causing inflammation, ulcers, and cancer of the intestines and colon. The pancreas can become inflamed and leak digestive enzymes which attack the pancreas itself.BONES & MUSCLES. Alcohol interferes with the body’s ability to absorb calcium resulting in bones being weak and thinner (osteoporosis). Muscles also become weaker and uncoordinated.Source: VA Department of ABCSource: VA ABC Department3
4Myths & Facts About Alcohol ABSORPTION RATE FACTORSStrength of drink: Drinks can have different effects based on their composition. Mixing a drink with a carbonated soda, for example, will quicken the effects of the alcohol due to the carbonation bubbles. Mixing alcohol with juice or milk, however, will decrease the effects of alcohol.Rate of consumption: Gulping or chugging drinks will increase the amount of alcohol absorbed into the system. The liver metabolizes alcohol at average rate of one drink per hour. If a person drinks faster than this, the remainder of the alcohol will circulate in the bloodstream until the liver is able to metabolize all of the alcohol.Body size/weight: Smaller people will generally be affected more quickly by alcohol than heavier people. This is because heavier people have more blood and water in their bodies, which assists in the dilution of alcohol.Food: A full stomach slows the absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream. Drinking on an empty stomach, however, will cause the BAC to rise more rapidly since there is no food to assist in absorption.Gender: Women tend to reach a higher BAC faster because they have a higher fat to muscle ratio than men. Fat repels alcohol, whereas muscle absorbs it. Therefore, it takes lesser amounts of alcohol for a woman to show signs of its effects since women are usually smaller, and have less muscle to absorb the alcohol.Drug use: The use of other legal or illegal drugs can increase the effects of alcohol, and may cause a risky, unpredictable outcome.Myths & Facts About AlcoholMyth: “I only had one drink.”Fact: One drink can be one too many, since alcohol absorption starts immediately. Several factors such as strength of drink, rate of consumption, body size/weight, food, gender, and drug use can affect the outcome of even one drink.Alcohol takes effect quickly and wears off slowly. Alcohol is immediately absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the stomach and small intestine. However, it takes a long time for the body and brain to return to normal. All the age-old remedies – black coffee, cold showers, fresh air, and exercise – are useless and only result in a more wide-awake drunk.Myth: “I know when I’m too drunk to drive.”Fact: Your driving skills can be seriously compromised even when your behavior is not observably “drunk.”Myth: “Black coffee and fresh air will sober me up.”Fact: All the age-old remedies—black coffee, cold showers, fresh air, and exercise—are useless. Only time will sober you up.
5What’s Your Probability of Crashing? The major factor in determining driver capability is the amount of alcohol consumed. The greater the BAC concentration, the greater the risk of being involved in a fatal crash.Young drivers ages 16 to 19 with a BAC of .02 percent to .05 percent – one to two drinks – are at least seven times more likely to be killed in a crash than a sober driver of any age.At .085 percent BAC – three to four drinks – young drivers are 40 times more likely to be killed than a sober driver and 20 times more likely to be killed than a 55-year-old driver with the same BAC level.By .12 percent BAC – four to six drinks – a 16- to 19-year-old is 90 times as likely to die in a traffic crash as a sober driver.The risk of a crash increases even before drivers are considered legally impaired or intoxicated.Source: AAA Traffic Safety DepartmentThe greater the blood alcohol concentration, the greater the risk of being involved in a fatal crash.Source: AAA Traffic Safety Department
6Do You Know How Much You Are Drinking? One ounce of distilled spirits, one 4 oz. glass of wine, one 12 oz. beer contain the SAME amount of alcohol.A drink with 80-proof liquor would contain 40% PURE alcohol.A woman who consumes 2 oz. of liquor will experience about the SAME effects as a man who consumes 4 oz.Do you know how much you are drinking? Remember, one oz. of distilled spirits, one 4 oz. glass of wine, and one 12 oz. beer all contain the same amount of alcohol. However, at restaurants and bars, sometimes drinks are not measured when they are poured, making it difficult to determine the amount of alcohol present. Also, some drinks call for more than one type of liquor. For example, a Long Island Iced Tea includes shots of alcohol that could equal up to three drinks!Another consideration in determining the strength of a drink is a measurement called proof. Proof expresses the amount of alcohol as twice the percent. For example, a drink with 80-proof liquor would contain 40% PURE alcohol.Research indicates that the level and duration of alcohol’s effects on females is greater than it is on males. Women have smaller quantities of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase that breaks down alcohol in the stomach. As a result, women absorb 30 percent more alcohol into their systems. Adjusting for weight, a woman who consumes 2 oz. of liquor will experience about the same effects as a man who consumes 4 oz.1 oz.distilled spiritsat 100 proof4 oz.wineat 12% alcohol12 oz.beerat 4% alcoholSources: AAA Traffic Safety Department and VA ABC Department
7Thinking About Drinking and Driving? A draft beer could cost you more than $3.50 if you don’t give your keys to someone else. Here’s a breakdown of how you’d spend most of your paycheck if you get charged with DUI.IMMEDIATE COST:Towing $100Lawyer 3,500Fine 400Alcohol Education Course 100Court Fees 400LONG-TERM COST:Insurance Surcharge 1,500License Reinstatement 1,000TOTAL MONETARY COST: $7,000INDIRECT COST:Impact on career and personal lifeEmbarrassment to family and friendsSource: Community Traffic Safety Team
8Driving Under the Influence THE LAWLegal drinking age: 21Level of blood alcohol content for DUI: .08DUI conviction of military personnel: If charged at a courtmartial, the penalties could result in a dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement in the brigor 18 months.INEXPENSIVE ALTERNATIVESCall a taxi cab: $30-$50Get a hotel room: $50-$100Call a friend/co-worker/boss: FREEUse command’s cab ride program: FREE (Cab ride policy varies by command)MAKING THE SMART CHOICEKnowing you did not risk your life or the life of an innocent victim of a DUI-related accident: PRICELESS!In 2004, Congress has amended the UCMJ to lower the BAC limit to If charged at a court-martial, the penalties could result in a dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement in the brig for 18 months.
9The Ravages of Car Crash Injuries If you survive a crash and live long enough to talk about it, this is what you’d have to live with.During a crash, your chances of survival are reduced by slow reaction times, impaired judgment, and poor motor skills.If you survive a crash and live, depending on the extent of injuries, you will most likely be subjected to extensive and painful medical treatments.The monetary cost of your hospitalization and rehabilitation will have a high price tag. But the highest price you pay would be if you killed someone as a result of drinking and driving.
10Holidays + Impaired Driving: Deadly Combination The holiday season is a good time for celebrating and traveling with family and friends. Make the decision not to drive when you’ve had too much to drink. Not only will you be a safer driver but you will be in a much better position to defend yourself from the driver who doesn’t make that choice.Thinking about drinking? Be smart and designate.
11How To Spot A Drunk Driver When a drunk driver is on the road, we are all at risk.Warning signs to look for while you are driving:Drifting, weaving, or hitting curbsSpeeding or driving too slowlyGiving inconsistent signalsBraking erraticallyStopping for no apparent causeDriving with the window rolled down in cold weatherTailgating and passing dangerously close to other carsMaking wide turns and hitting objects near the road
12What You Can Do…Safe driving requires more than just learning the necessary skills. Young adults need to adopt – and leaders need to encourage – safe attitudes and responsible behaviors.Start an anti-drunk driving campaign at your command.Designate a “duty” driver when going out with friends.Ask to spend the night if at a home party.Do not give in to peer pressure. Use best judgment.Call for a ride or set a taxi ride program.Be a responsible host. Serve non-alcoholic drinks at your party.
13A Host’s Guide to Good Times with Good Friends Make It A Great Party!A Host’s Guide to Good Times with Good Friends12When serving alcoholic beverages, serve food as well.Serve “measured” drinks.43Offer non-alcoholic beverages.Serve each guest one drink at a time.Help your guests get home safely.56Stop serving alcohol at least one hour before the party ends.