Presentation on theme: "Electricity makes downtown Dallas sparkle at dusk."— Presentation transcript:
Electricity makes downtown Dallas sparkle at dusk.
Energy Energy exists in several different forms: Mechanical Mechanical Thermal Thermal Chemical Chemical Electrical Electrical Light Light Nuclear. Nuclear.
Energy The ability to do work or cause change Heat (Thermal) Light Sound Chemical Electrical Nuclear Mechanical Energy Bubble Map
Energy Resources can be divided into 2 categories: Non-Renewable Resources Non-Renewable Resources For example – coal, oil, gas, uranium or lignite For example – coal, oil, gas, uranium or lignite Once used these resources be used again. Once used these resources CANNOT be used again. Renewable Resources Renewable Resources For example – wind, water or solar For example – wind, water or solar These resources can be used over and over again. These resources can be used over and over again.
Non-Renewable Resources: NUCLEAR What is it? Uses uranium, naturally found in some rocks Advantages? Not much waste and few CO 2 emissions released, as well as, few other greenhouse gases Disadvantages? High cost to build and close down power stations. Waste is radioactive. Problem with getting rid of waste safely
Nuclear fission Nuclear fission is the splitting of an atom’s nucleus into two smaller nuclei. When the neutron hits the U-235 nucleus, the nucleus splits apart into two smaller nuclei and two or more neutrons. When the neutron hits the U-235 nucleus, the nucleus splits apart into two smaller nuclei and two or more neutrons. In a nuclear fission reaction, a neutron “bullet” strikes a U-235 nucleus. As a result, the nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. More neutrons are released, along with a great deal of energy.
Fossil Fuels and Energy Fossil fuels are the energy-rich substances formed from the remains of once-living organisms. Coal Coal Oil Oil Natural Gas Natural Gas
Non-Renewable Resources: COAL What is it? Formed underground from decaying plant material. Advantages? Plenty left Mining is getting more efficient Disadvantages? Pollution: CO 2 emissions (linked to global warming), SO 2 (linked to acid rain) Heavy & bulky to transport
Coal Solid fossil fuel Formed from plant remains Provides 25 percent of the energy used in the United States Major use is to fuel electric power plants mined Difficult to obtain Most plentiful fossil fuel in the United States Easy to transport Produces a lot of air pollution Coal mining can be a dangerous job. New safety procedures and better equipment, including robots and drills that produce less coal dust, have made coal mining safer.
Non-Renewable Resources: OIL What is it? Formed underground from decaying animal and plant material Advantages? Quite easy to transport Efficient in producing energy Less pollution than coal Disadvantages? Not much left Pollution: air and danger of water pollution through spills
Oil A thick, black, liquid fossil fuel. Sometimes called Petroleum Sometimes called Petroleum More than one third of the energy produced in the worldMore than one third of the energy produced in the world Fuel for: cars, airplanes, trains, ships any many homesFuel for: cars, airplanes, trains, ships any many homes The United States consumes about one third of all the oil produced in the world. But only three percent of the world’s supply is located in this country. The difference mt be purchased from countries with large oil supplies. The United States consumes about one third of all the oil produced in the world. But only three percent of the world’s supply is located in this country. The difference mt be purchased from countries with large oil supplies. producing and using petroleum does affect the environment burning it contributes to air pollution.
Oil Finding oil is difficult Use sound waves to test an area for oil Use sound waves to test an area for oil Measure echoes Measure echoes Measure time sound waves travel through solid rock or liquid oils. Measure time sound waves travel through solid rock or liquid oils. about one out of every six wells drilled produces a usable amount of oil. about one out of every six wells drilled produces a usable amount of oil.
Refining Oil A factory where crude oil is separated into fuels and other products by heating is called a refinery. Products produced from oil. Products produced from oil. Gasoline, heating oilGasoline, heating oil PetrochemicalsPetrochemicals Plastics Plastics Paints Paints Medicines Medicines Cosmetics. Cosmetics. Oil refineries can affect the environment. Chemicals produced in the refining process may escape into the air or water, causing pollution.
Non-Renewable Resources: NATURAL GAS What is it? Formed underground from decaying animal and plant material Advantages? Clean, least polluting of all non-renewables Easy to transport Disadvantages? Some air pollution Danger of explosions
Natural Gas Fossil fuel Less dense than oil Advantages produces large amounts of energy produces large amounts of energy lower levels of air pollutants lower levels of air pollutants easy to transport easy to transport Disadvantage gas leak can cause a violent explosion and fire. gas leak can cause a violent explosion and fire. Natural gas actually has no odor. Gas companies add a chemical with a distinct smell to the gas before it is piped to homes and businesses so that any leaks will be noticed.
Renewable Sources of Energy Renewable resources are naturally replaced in a short period of time. Solar (sun) Solar (sun) Wind (wind farms) Wind (wind farms) Hydropower (energy from water) Hydropower (energy from water) Geothermal (h eat from the ground) Geothermal (h eat from the ground) Biomass (wood, garbage, plant waste) Biomass (wood, garbage, plant waste) These resources help meet people’s energy needs.
Renewable Resources: (Can also be thought of as inexhaustible) SOLAR What is it? Energy from the sun How much left? Endless Advantages? No pollution, can be used in remote areas Disadvantages? Can be expensive, needs sunlight At night it doesn’t work
Solar House This solar house uses passive and active heating systems and solar cells to convert solar energy into heat and electricity
Renewable Resources: WIND What is it? It the movement of air from high to low pressure How much left? Endless Advantages? No pollution Disadvantages? Winds change all the time, not predictable
Wind Wind “wind farms” consist of many windmills“wind farms” consist of many windmills 1 percent of the world’s electricity1 percent of the world’s electricity Portions of Texas have a high potential for utilizing wind energy.Portions of Texas have a high potential for utilizing wind energy. Sources of Renewable Energy The Panhandle contains the state's greatest expanse with high quality winds. Well- exposed locations atop the caprock and hilltops experience particularly attractive wind speeds.
Renewable Resources: HYDROPOWER Also known as Hydroelectric What is it? Movement of water drives a turbine How much left? Endless Advantages? No CO 2 emissions, can control flooding and provide a good water supply to an area Disadvantages? Large areas maybe flooded. Visual and water pollution
Hydroelectric power is generated by changing energy from one form to another. Hydroelectric Power Plant
Renewable Resources: GEOTHERMAL What is it? Heat from the ground – often used to heat water Advantages? No CO 2 emissions Disadvantages? Expensive and can only be used in certain parts of the world
Geothermal Energy Geothermal Energy Magma heats underground water to the boiling point. The hot water and steam are valuable sources of geothermal energy.Magma heats underground water to the boiling point. The hot water and steam are valuable sources of geothermal energy. Sources of Renewable Energy magma A geothermal power plant uses heat from Earth’s interior as an energy source. Cold water is piped deep into the ground, where it is heated by magma. The resulting steam can be used for heat or to generate electricity.
Renewable Resources: BIOMASS What is it? fermented animal or plant waste vegetation from sustainable sources Advantages? Good availability Disadvantages? Can be expensive to set up
Energy Conservation Although fossil fuels may never be completely used up, they will eventually become scarcer and more expensive. Nonrenewable fossil fuels generate over two thirds of the nation’s electricity. What can be done? find new sources of energy find new sources of energy make the fuels that are available now last as long as possible make the fuels that are available now last as long as possible