Presentation on theme: "Professional Ethics For the Health and Safety Professional June 2004"— Presentation transcript:
1Professional Ethics For the Health and Safety Professional June 2004 ASSE Conference Las Vegas
2Dr. Peter Strahlendorf B.Sc., LL.B., LL.M., S.J.D., B.E.S., CRSP Associate ProfessorSchool of Occupational and Public HealthRyerson UniversityToronto, Canada
3Pick OneEthics cannot be taught. You are able to sense what is right, good and just, and are motivated to act – or you are not.2. While people differ in their abilities, most people can improve their ethical decision-making through education and practice.
4A Personal Challenge to the Science-Oriented Do we think differently when thinking scientifically than when thinking ethically?Can you find scientific answers to the questions “what is reasonable?”, or “what is fair”?This is part of the “art” of OHS practice.
5Professional Ethics What is a “profession”? What is “ethics”? What is “professional ethics”?Ethical theoriesThinking about professional ethicsProfessional valuesCodes of Ethics
6Do you agree?It is always wrong to intentionally take an innocent life?
7Do you agree?The right course of action is to weigh the consequences of action and choose the action that leads to the greatest good for the greatest number?
8Two Valid Moral Positions The first is “Kantianism”Kant: Right or wrong regardless of consequencesThe second is “Utilitarianism”Utilitarianism: Right or wrong depending on consequencesMost people agree with both positions
9DilemmaThe hijacked plane with 200 people is approaching a building with 50,000 peopleVote! Will you shoot down the plane?
10Dilemma You cannot subscribe to both principles in the case. A true moral dilemmaWhich position has the greatest weight in the circumstances?
11OrientationAim to show several different ways to think through a problem in professional ethics, rather than merely describe what professionals say are their problems (sociology of ethics).
13ProfessionAll professions are occupations, but not all occupations are professionsCan take a broad or narrow view of what is a “profession”A “self-regulated occupational group capable of legally prohibiting others (including incompetent or unethical members) from practising” is a narrow view
14“Morality and the Professional Life” Based Primarily on :“Morality and the Professional Life”Cynthia A. BrincatVictoria S. WikePrentice Hall, 2000ISBN
15Profession 1. Group identity 2. Shared education, training requirements for admission3. Special uncommon knowledge4. Knowledge used in the service of others… positive social need5. Involves individual judgment, (some) autonomy in decisions6. Adherence to certain values7. Penalties for substandard performance
16Profession Matter of degree … there are many “emerging professions”. Obstacle in the way of the OHS professional is the diverse nature of practice with competing co-professionals.
17ProfessionYou are not a professional until you are a member of a group of colleagues who have articulated a set of standards and values and can enforce them, at the very least, by exclusion from the group.
18“Professionalism” 1. Skill, competency in work 2. Relational element – work will be beneficial to othersWork itself doesn’t have moral statusExecution of work has moral status
19Recognizing when We’re in the Realm of Ethics Watch the language:Right and wrong -- ActionsGood and bad -- Motives, methods, goals
20Professional EthicsPurpose… Helps professional decide when faced with a problem that raises a moral issueComplexity … Can be many people, with many issues involved … may be involved history to the issues … may be an issue WHO decides, not just WHAT decided.
21Ethics and Morality Morality – making choices with reasons Ethics – the study of HOW the choices are made, ie “ethics is the study of morality”Often use “ethics” and “morality” interchangeably
22General vs Professional General Ethics – individual as member of community, broader range of issues, “top down” principlesProfessional Ethics – moral expectations specific to the occupational group, tend to focus on concrete “bottom up” cases
23Morality and EthicsProfessional Morality – what we do in our occupational livesProfessional Ethics – the study of what we do in our professional lives
24Ethics and Law Law – the authority is external Ethics – the authority is internalMuch of law, but not all, is based in moralitySometimes law is unethicalMuch of what is ethical is unaddressed by legal rules
25Professional Ethics and Law There is a moral duty to obey the law (with some caveats)Professional ethics covers more issues than the lawOne can be unethical without behaving illegallyRare – ethically must resist the law
26Professional Ethics and Law Be very careful not to embark in an exercise in ethical analysis when there is a clear legal rule in the situation that trumps the entire process of ethical analysis.
27Professional Ethics and Law Be very careful not to assume that there is a legal rule for every situation. Often the gaps between legal rules require one to switch to an ethical analysis.
28Ethics Descriptive ethics – “What IS” Prescriptive ethics – “What OUGHT to be”We do not seek to study professional ethics as a sociologist would, but to assist with choices about what one ought to do.
29Descriptive Ethics 2002 British study by Burgess and Mullen: 77% of hygienists had witnessed ethical misconduct by colleagues within last 5 years.
30Descriptive Ethics Burgess and Mullen study. Most common cases: PlagiarismConfidentiality of dataFaked dataCriticizing colleagues for gainHolding back, disguising dataDestruction of dataNot reporting incident deliberately
31Descriptive EthicsPatricia Logan 2001, USA. Reported reasons for misbehavior, hygienists:Economic pressureTransition from employee to consultant results in compromisesWorking in foreign countriesLack of legal standardsWorking on contingency basisDecrease in job security
32Descriptive to Prescriptive Two very different ways of reasoning. Descriptive, or scientific, studies of professional ethics help us identify issues that need to be included in Code of Ethics and in educational programs. Gives us our “case studies”.
33Prescriptive Ethics “What OUGHT to be” The words used are different… good-bad, right-wrong, just-unjustThought processes use values, goods, virtues, rules, ethical theories, moral reasons, moral explanations, and moral decisions.
34Why the Interest in Professional Ethics? As occupations become more specialized, the ethical issues become more specializedProfessional societies have increased efforts to establish ethical codes to guide membersIncreasing public scrutiny, lack of traditional deferenceRegulatory oversight, public protection
36Machinery of Prescriptive Ethics Rules – e.g. “always tell the truth”Values – e.g. IntegrityThe two are intimately related.
37Prescriptive Ethics Judgments should be “universalizable” or “generalizable”Judgments should apply to like cases and not be case-specific or subjective“If it applies to me now, it should apply to anyone else in a similar position.”
38Moral RelativismEthical values are relative to time, place and cultureMoral beliefs are subjective and arbitrary“It’s all a matter of personal opinion”Decisions shift easily
39Moral Absolutism Ethical values completely objective Unchangeable, universal, no exceptionsComparatively inflexibleNeither position tenable.
40ObjectivityCodes of ethics require objectivity, which means that there are principles and values outside of the individual that the members of the community share and that individuals will be measured against.
41Objectivity“Thinking reasonably is thinking morally.”Samuel Johnson
42Reasonable Person -- Peer What would the reasonable peer do in the circumstances?Reasonable person: mature, sane, sober, well-informed, well-intentioned, open-minded, calm, detached but empathetic …Reasonable peer – add expertise.
43Moral Decisions Reasons explain a decision: Reason + Reason +… = DecisionExplanation… System of reasons
44A Moral Reason Is general, not particular or contingent reason, not instinct or external authoritynot selfishnessmoral value, not economic, legal, social value
45Moral ExplanationAt least one of the reasons justifying a decision is a moral reason.This identifies, but does not evaluate a moral explanation.
46Dilemma Explanation 1 Reason + Reason + … Decision 1 Explanation 2 May or may not be a MORAL dilemma
47Non-Moral Dilemma1. I should work late and finish the work I promised I’d finish.2. I should leave and go to a party because I like parties and want to enjoy myself.1. = universalizable, non-selfish, moral value (integrity, responsibility, promises…)2. = non-moral reasons and decision.
49Resolution of Dilemmas Some dilemmas are resolved because they are not moral dilemmas.Some MORAL dilemmas can be resolved through a creative third alternative that satisfies both moral outcomes.Or, possible to sequentially act on each one.Or, evaluation will show which is strongest moral explanation and decision.
50Evaluate Moral Reasons STRONGrelevant to decisionconcern with person(s) most affected by decisionfocussed on values of central importanceWEAKtends to be irrelevantnot concerned with person(s) most affected by decisionemphasizes peripheral values
51Evaluate Moral Explanations STRONGuse several perspectives (consequences, motives, rights, virtues, etc.)considers all personsmany valuesWEAKnarrow focusselective concernfewer values
53A Moral Theory Is a broad perspective which: helps us decide which element of a moral problem is most important (e.g. consequences, rights, goods, virtues, etc.)helps us resolve conflicts between rules and between values.
54How We Come by Moral Theories FamilyReligionCultureExperience and reflectionEducation
55Moral Action Theories -- “Doing” consequences for communityrights of individualsduties of individualsWhat correct course of action should I take?
56Moral Status Theories - “Being” Virtue, characterCare, relationshipsNarrative, history and plansWhat kind of person should I be?
57Human Goods Life, health Knowledge Play Art Friendship “Self-evidently good”
58Human GoodsHuman life considered to be fundamental good, pre-conditional goodHuman life is not measurable, “life is priceless”Leads to dilemmas in the workplace
59Consequentialism The greatest good for the greatest number an act is right only if it tends to result in the greatest net goodall acts are potentially permissible; depends on consequencesall persons count equallydifficult to determine which consequences, what probability, what weight?May sacrifice individuals for greater good
60Consequentialism Utilitarianism is major consequentialist theory Not the only oneMay aim for human goods as a matter of duty, without a strict utilitarian calculation
61Rights-Based Theories Right = justified claim on someoneRight-holder may or may not claim rightWhich rights?Which rights more fundamental? Or pressing?An act is morally right if it respects and upholds rightsRespects individuals, bearers of rightsGood of community may be sacrificed for right of individual
62Duty-Based Theories Duty = obligation, responsibility Considers motive or intention of decision-maker, plus nature of act, rights, consequencesGood motive, means are acceptable, nature of act is goodConsequences are of secondary considerationRecognizes complexityValue of individual is importantMay sacrifice community good for the sake of individual duty
63Kantianism Often viewed as a duty-based theory But rights emerge from duty to treat others with respectX has a duty to YY has a right that X must respectE.g. right to know and duty to tell
64Kantianism “Deontological” = prior to action Decide if an act is right or wrong without looking at consequencesMotivated by reason alone“Universal moral imperatives”Reason tells us that something is always right … all can follow without contradiction
65Kantianism Duty to: “Always tell the truth” “Always avoid taking an innocent life”“Always treat others as ends in themselves and never as means solely” Basis of respect for persons
66Virtue-Based Theories Act for the sake of virtue, or as a virtuous person wouldA virtue is a good character trait or dispositionTendency to act in a way that promotes human good or human flourishingVice is a bad character traitMore people affected by virtue than fewerMore virtues expressed than fewerBUT, some virtues may be more important than othersWhole person considered, not isolated actsVirtues may be culturally specific
69Using Moral Theories Not what is decided, but HOW it is decided Theories identify values and interpret valuesA person’s moral theory explains why they hold the values they do
70Professional Ethics Professional’s work involves decision-making One’s own decisions, decisions of othersRelational component to professional workMust understand reasons and decisions of othersMust make own decisions in context of others’ decisions
71Moral Framework Provide a Moral Explanation by: Appeal to a Rule (rightness, wrongness)Using a Theory (perspective)Applying a Value…in order to make a Decision
72Moral Framework Analysis … decision is already made Decision-making … decision still to comeAnalysis DecisionRuleTheoryValueDecision-making
74Common Professional Values IntegrityHonestyPromise keepingLoyaltyCompetence
75Common Professional Values Respect for personsJusticeCompassionConfidentiality
76Comparison Medicine and law: services relate primarily to persons Engineering and other science based professions: services relate primarily to thingsOHS professional: services relate to both; more complex
77Comparison Medicine and law: solo practice or partnership Engineering: employee in organizationOHS professional: Consultant, employee, official-- Wider issues of responsibility-- Relations, context, conflicts, values not always the same
78Integrity Most common value in professional codes Keystone value “Consistent commitment to moral commitments”“Structural integrity” = our moral character is the same, whole, integratedCan’t commit to conflicting standards and have integrity
79Integrity and Honesty Related values Honest people “have integrity” To be true to a system of values, one must be honestIntegrity requires being committed to honestyHonesty is a way of valuing integrity
80ProblemBrilliant, first class OHS professional … but he suggested a scheme many years ago … we would advise clients only solution to a certain regulation was purchase of a very expensive storage tank for which we and our third partner (unknown to client) would have sole vending rights …
81Integrity and Honesty Rules: admit errors refrain from false/misleading pretences … competencyadvise clients truthfullydon’t fool with the numbersdon’t steal others’ work -- plagiarism
82ProblemA few years ago, heard that “Tony”, a former student was claiming that he was a professor in OHS at our university in his consulting adverts.Investigated: His flyer said “engaged with instruction at Ryerson in OHS for 4 years” .. . Verbally interpreted as “teaching”.
83Problem “We like to order more copies of your training manual” Never heard of the company; not a client.“How did you get original training manuals?”“Oh, Mr X used them when he did training for us last year.”
84Integrity and Promise Keeping Lack of integrity/honesty = “say X, mean Y”Integrity: follow through on promisesBe careful about promises as may jeopardize integrityOHS consultant: promise more than one can deliver?
85Problem Bait and Switch: Albert Einstein does the pitch but Gomer Pyle shows up to do the OHS work ….
86Problem Consultant promises to: Get you to world class safety in 3 monthsGet your “accidents to zero”Ensure complianceOr head office wants you, the employee, to agree to the above.
87Integrity and Loyalty/Dependability “Avoid actions that degrade integrity of profession” = loyalty to professionBe loyal to profession’s goalsIf committed to profession, be committed to profession’s goalsDependability is a display of loyaltyLoyalty to employer’s goals
88Disloyalty to Profession’s Goals OHS professional:Advocates high risk behaviour?Chooses incompatible values to promote?Displays risky behaviour in personal life?
89ProblemMember of a professional OHS group, certified by that group, set up his own designation and offered short courses for $ for people to obtain the designation. In his advertising, he said the new designation was “just as good” as the original, only half as expensive and 1/10 the time.
90Conflicts Involving Integrity Commitment to our commitmentsWhat if 2 or more commitments in conflict?Creatively find alternatives where not at oddsOften values not in true conflict, but interpretation of valuesMay be a greater commitment to some values than others; compromise necessary in world of scarce resources
91Problem “Protect life, environment, and property.” “Do not compromise.”Possible?Are the values of equal priority when commitments come into conflict?
92“Whistleblowing” Disclosure of wrong-doing Conflict: protection of life versus loyaltyHonesty versus loyaltyHonesty versus promise keeping
93ProblemYour report shows areas of high risk, non-compliance, errors etc.Your superior or client rewrites the report, eliminating your data and conclusions, or buries the report.Duty to warn in conflict with ….
94“Whistleblowing” Explore all options to avoid conflict Creativity and clarification often reduce conflictCompromise between values often possibleDistinguish between internal versus public whistleblowing
95“Whistleblowing”Some cases of public whistleblowing excessive and involve motives of spite, revenge, self-justificationBest companies have addressed whistleblowing and protect it… provide internal mechanismsHard cases requiring self-sacrifice actually rare, involve high risk
96CompetencyPart of the meaning of “professional” is to possess special, uncommon knowledge and skills.Don’t have to be best in profession, just above threshold.Redundant to put in Codes of Ethics?,as incompetent person should not have been granted status, or should have been weeded out?
97Competency – Duty to Maintain Far more important is a duty to keep up, to maintain competence.As technology and knowledge improve, the bar of professional practice is raised.“Standing still” results in eventual incompetence.
98ProblemA few years ago, a well known member of the profession stated publicly that a failure to adopt behavior-based safety was professional malpractice (hence, unethical).Agree?
99ProblemInsofar as BBS is “behavioral psychology”, we would be missing out on cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, evolutionary psychology, etc. etc.
100SolutionProfessional groups should be leery of declaring that certain theories and techniques are “true” or established.Better approach is the PDC approach where competing and novel ideas are not barred. Gradual, contingent acceptance is the pathway.
101Areas of Competence Extremely important in a profession: where people come from a wide variety of disciplinesthere are many areas of specialization, andthere are other professions adjacent
102ProblemsYou are asked to provide expert evidence in an area that you are not truly an expert.Head office wants all locations to institute a certain safety technique about which you know little.You observe a colleague offering services in areas you know he or she has little competence.
103Respect for PersonsAll persons are due basic respect and a dignity which is to be respectedKant: “treat every person as as end, and not as a means solely”Other people are not merely a method for our own goals; others have their own goalsOthers may be used with informed consent … contracts are moral
104Respect for PersonsDistributive justice - distributive criterion for basic respect and dignity is personhoodRespect on a continuum - desert beyond the basic minimumRespect for certain aspects of others: integrity, wisdom, honesty, skill, experienceBasis of respect for professional peers
105Respect for PersonsProfessional - show basic respect for every person, even if not feltNot hypocrisyMany professional codes refer to a right to “respectful care” on part of client/patientConfidentiality, privacy, autonomy, choice, informed consent, self-development, empowerment
106ProblemOHS professional transferred to company’s gold mine in South Africa. A large portion of miners were HIV positive, and life expectancy averaged 2 years. Company’s unstated position that spending on safety uneconomical due to short life span of workers? Solution?
107Justice Justice as “fairness” Involves “balancing”, “weighing” and conforming to a standardMoral psychology: people have a “sense of justice”Four forms of justice: Commutative, distributive, retributive and procedural
108Commutative Justice Unfair to leave a harm uncorrected. X does harm to Y. Take from X to compensate Y so as to address the imbalance. Basis of law of torts.Fairness lies in putting people back in the position they would have been in had the harm not been done
109Distributive Justice Fairness in distributions Distribute X according to pre-agreed criterion Y (need, ability to pay, merit, status, personhood)We distribute DVD players on the basis of ability to pay, university degrees on the basis of merit, and human rights on the basis of personhood
110Retributive JusticeBalance severity of punishment with severity of harm for which punishment imposedSevere punishment for severe wrongs, light for slightWorkplace discipline should be fair in such a balanced fashion.
111Procedural Justice Fairness in decision-making about others’ interests Unbiased decision-makerHear both sidesMutual disclosure, noticeTreat both sides equallyBalance between the parties
112Justice Treat like cases alike Justice equality, Justice = equity Equal and unequal treatment could both be “fair”“Rewarding” and “punishing” can both be “fair”Not always concerned with legal version(s) of justice
113Justice in the Workplace Fair compensation for servicesEqual treatment in processUnfair competitive practicesAppropriate (fair) disciplineHearing both sides in a disputeNo bias re grounds of discrimination
114Professional Codes & Justice Accountability -- punish professionals who violate standardsDuty to report colleagues’ wrong-doing for retributive justice to be carried outFairness: warning, reprimand, suspension, expulsion from group
115Professional Codes & Justice Fairness in distribution of professional services -- no discriminationMore than one form of justice can be in play at same time
116Compassion A professional is compassionate No “relational sensitivity” = no professional lifeCompassion is a feelingNo obligation to feel compassion, but an obligation to act compassionatelySome believe professional is “dispassionate”
117Compassion Concern for others Strongly relational: employer-employee, colleague-colleague, professional-clientImagine (if you can’t ask) what it would be like in the other’s shoesNot “knowing better”, but “knowing as”
118Compassion Two rules: Alleviate suffering Act in other person’s actual (to them) best interest
119Confidentiality Confidentiality regarding: Whose interests Which interests
120Confidentiality Confidential information of: Worker Employer Colleague Competitor
121Confidentiality Medical information CBI – confidential business informationLegal rules exist in many jurisdictions for both.
122Problem“You’ve won the contract but how about including these features of your competitor’s work – from his proposal -- into your services. We insist…”Should you? Aiding in a breach of confidentiality by the client?
123ProblemYou signed a confidentiality agreement when consulting for a world class company - X. During the contract you learn many highly effective techniques. Later you are asked to give a talk at a PD conference on “X’s world class safety techniques”.
124ProblemIf clear contractual language, not an ethical issue but a legal one.Yet, contractual non-confidentiality clauses do not typically capture experience.Not simple, outside of legal issue, as failure to share knowledge a breach of a professional standard. Lives may be saved with broader use of technique.
125ProblemYou signed a confidentiality agreement, and began contract. Discovered:An issue of high risk, the company ignoring; orAn issue of high risk, the company actively covering up, lying; orAn issue of high risk, the company knows it’s in clear legal non-compliance.
126Conflicts Human life versus property e.g. Right to know versus trade secretsHuman life versus environmente.g. Take time to ensure PPE of response crew versus speed in preventing chemical reaching natural environment
127Conflict of InterestUsually refers to conflict between professional duties and personal interestsCan also refer to conflict between professional duties/values and other values
128Objective Decision-making Often expressed in Codes of EthicsOpposite of subjectivityDoes the decision and the reasoning behind it hold up to scrutiny by the “reasonable peer”?No bias, truthfulness, no conflict of interest
129Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) Commonly used to guide actionRelated to risk benefit analysis1. What are alternatives?2. Identify costs and benefits of each3. Quantify4. Calculate net gain of each5. Choose one with greatest net gain
130Criticism of CBA 1. Not all costs/benefits identified 2. Correct weight not given3. Action may be greatest net gain but morally impermissible from another moral perspective4. Appears “scientific” or “value free”; but not5. Merely a utilitarian technique
131Environmental Protection 1. Protect human interest in the environment, versus2. Protect the environment “for its own sake”Environmental ethics is problematic:-- “rights” for non-moral creatures?-- universalizability of principles?
132Protection of Property Often denigrated as a valueCompares poorly with “human life”Yet, pre-condition to many aspects of human flourishingImplicit in organizational values of commercial enterprisesAn issue in many dilemmas and cannot be ignored
133Relations with Colleagues Distinguish between duties to profession as an institution and duties to professional colleaguesDon’t bring profession into disreputeTreat colleagues in a professional manner
134Relations with Colleagues Co-operativeRespectEgalitarianSupportive and helpfulOpennessNo blatant crude competitionIntra-professional recognition based on meritMaintenance of discipline
136Code of Ethics Clarifies values and rules Facilitates group cohesion Instills necessary public confidenceUsed as framework for discipline
137Code of Ethics -- The Audience 1. Members of profession2. Clients, employers3. Agencies and regulators4. Public at large5. Professional “competitors”
138Code of Ethics -- Positive 1. Inspirational?2. Educational?3. Enforcement, self-policing4. Resolve moral dilemmas?5. Alert audience of expected standard of performance
139Code of Ethics -- Negative? 1. Done to polish public image?2. Protects professional monopoly?3. Status symbol of emerging profession?4. Can instill complacency (“we have a code of ethics, therefore we are ethical”)5. Cannot create an ethics6. Cannot truly codify ethics7. Of marginal ability to resolve ethical dilemmas without collateral education
140Code of Ethics Examine each statement in Code Where do you see the professional values we have been reviewing?Do we agree they need “unpacking” and further study to see what they really mean in application?Do we agree that a Code of Ethics is good, but not sufficient?
141ASSE Code of Professional Conduct Duty to serve and protect people, property and environment.Exercise duty with integrity, honor and dignity.
142ASSE Code of Professional Conduct Principles:1. Protect people, property and the environment through the application of state-of-the-art knowledge.
143ASSE Code of Professional Conduct Principles:2. Serve the public, employees, employers, clients and the Society with fidelity, honesty and impartiality.
144ASSE Code of Professional Conduct Principles:Achieve and maintain competency in the practice of the profession.Avoid conflicts of interest and compromise of professional conduct.Maintain confidentiality of privileged information.
145ASSE Code of Professional Conduct I shall:1.Inform the public, employers, employees, clients and appropriate authorities when professional judgment indicates that there is an unacceptable level of risk.
146ASSE Code of Professional Conduct I shall:Improve knowledge and skills through training, education and networking.Perform professional services only in the area of competence.
147ASSE Code of Professional Conduct I shall:Issue public statements in a truthful manner, and only within the parameters of authority granted.
148ASSE Code of Professional Conduct I shall:Serve as an agent and trustee, avoiding any appearance of conflict of interest.Assure equal opportunity to all.
149BCSP Code of Ethics“Certificants shall, in their professional safety activities, sustain and advance the integrity, honor, and prestige of the safety profession by adherence to these standards.”
150BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 1. Hold paramount the safety and health of people, the protection of the environment and protection of property in the performance of professional duties and exercise their obligation to advise employers, clients, employees, the public, and appropriate authorities of danger and unacceptable risks to people, the environment, or property.
151BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 2. Be honest, fair, and impartial; act with responsibility and integrity. Adhere to high standards of ethical conduct with balanced care for the interests of the public, employers, clients, employees, colleagues and the profession. Avoid all conduct or practice which is likely to discredit the profession or deceive the public.
152BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner and only when founded upon knowledge of the facts and competence in the subject matter.
153BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 4. Undertake assignments only when qualified by education or experience in the specific technical fields involved. Accept responsibility for their continued professional development by acquiring and maintaining competence through continuing education, experience and professional training.
154BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 5. Avoid deceptive acts which falsify or misrepresent their academic or professional qualifications. Not misrepresent or exaggerate their degree of responsibility in or for the subject matter of prior assignments.
155BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 5. Continued …Presentations incident to the solicitation of employment shall not misrepresent pertinent facts concerning employers, employees, associates, or past accomplishments with the intent and purpose of enhancing their qualifications and their work.
156BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 6. Conduct their professional relations by the highest standards of integrity and avoid compromise of their professional judgment by conflicts of interest.
157BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 7. Act in a manner free of bias with regard to religion, ethnicity, gender, age, national origin, disability, marital status, or sexual orientation.
158BCSP Code of Ethics -- Standards 8. Seek opportunities to be of constructive service in civic affairs and work for the advancement of the safety, health and well-being of their community and their profession by sharing their knowledge and skills.
159SummaryExamination of professional ethics is important for the profession as an institution, and for individual professionalsSolving problems can be very difficult – sometimes …Better ethical decision-making can come from education and practiceEducation is needed to supplement Code of Ethics
160For an electronic copy of this presentation, please email me at: And put on subject line “ethics talk”