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SoundSound Physics 102 Chapter Fourteen Amanda Hyer.

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Presentation on theme: "SoundSound Physics 102 Chapter Fourteen Amanda Hyer."— Presentation transcript:

1 SoundSound Physics 102 Chapter Fourteen Amanda Hyer

2 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz infrasonic ultrasonic Compressions rarefactions Audible Frequency Range

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4 Ultrasonic infrasonic 20 kHz 20 Hz Audible Frequency

5 Elastic Media Air Helium water rock steel slow fast speed=wavelength x frequency

6 Speed of Sound Speed = 331 m/s Tc speed = 343 m/s at 20 °C d=v x t ~ 1 km in 3 sec or 1 mile in 5 sec

7 Classical calculation of Sound Speed

8 Bulk Modulus for Air

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12 ExerciseExercise How far away is a lightening bolt that is heard 12.0 sec after the flash is seen? Given: t=12.0 sec and v =1/3 km / sec Wanted: d Solution: Use d= v t d = (1 / 3 km/sec) (12.0 sec)= 4 km

13 ReflectionReflection

14 RefractionRefraction The bending of sound because the speed is different in adjacent regions

15 RefractionRefraction source far away

16 RefractionRefraction source far away warm cool Afternoon

17 RefractionRefraction source far away warm cool Late Evening

18 Energy in sound High frequencies dissipate faster than low. loud tuning fork versus soft tuning fork.

19 ResonanceResonance system that has a natural frequency like a tight string or a tube (flute) driven by a tiny oscillating force Resonce occurs when the frequency of the force matches the natural frequency of the system.

20 Interference When two waves overlap they form an interference pattern which can be either a constructive interference or a destructive interference. + = Constructive += Destructive Reinforcement Cancellation

21 InterferenceInterference Constructive (in Phase) Destructive (180 ° out of phase)

22 InterferenceInterference

23 BeatsBeats When two different frequencies merge beats are heard The Beat frequency is the difference between the two frequencies.

24 BeatsBeats

25 ExerciseExercise What is the beat frequency when a sound of 256 Hz meets a sound of 260 Hz Given: F1=256 Hz and F2= 260 Hz Wanted: F beats Solution: Use F Beats = Abs(F1 - F2) F Beats = Abs(F1 - F2) = 4 Hz

26 ResonanceResonance system that has a natural frequency like a tight string or a tube (flute) driven by a tiny oscillating force Resonce occurs when the frequency of the force matches the natural frequency of the system.

27 Standing Waves on a String

28 Open Organ pipe

29 Organ Pipe Closed at one end

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31 Am and Fm broadcasting AM Amplitude Modulation carrier wave kHz FM Frequency Modulation M Hz

32 Am and Fm broadcasting Radio waves are electromagnetic waves Their speed is 300,000,000 m/s They travel through outer space Sound is an acoustical wave The speed of sound is 340 m/s They do not travel through outer space

33 Am and Fm broadcasting Radio waves are electromagnetic waves Their speed is 300,000,000 m/s They travel through outer space Sound is an acoustical wave The speed of sound is 340 m/s They do not travel through outer space

34 Carrier Frequency

35 AM broadcasting

36 Fm broadcasting


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