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SoundSound Physics 102 Chapter Fourteen Amanda Hyer

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20 Hz to 20,000 Hz infrasonic ultrasonic Compressions rarefactions Audible Frequency Range

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Ultrasonic infrasonic 20 kHz 20 Hz Audible Frequency

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Elastic Media Air Helium water rock steel slow fast speed=wavelength x frequency

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Speed of Sound Speed = 331 m/s + 0.6 Tc speed = 343 m/s at 20 °C d=v x t ~ 1 km in 3 sec or 1 mile in 5 sec

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Classical calculation of Sound Speed

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Bulk Modulus for Air

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ExerciseExercise How far away is a lightening bolt that is heard 12.0 sec after the flash is seen? Given: t=12.0 sec and v =1/3 km / sec Wanted: d Solution: Use d= v t d = (1 / 3 km/sec) (12.0 sec)= 4 km

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ReflectionReflection

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RefractionRefraction The bending of sound because the speed is different in adjacent regions

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RefractionRefraction source far away

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RefractionRefraction source far away warm cool Afternoon

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RefractionRefraction source far away warm cool Late Evening

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Energy in sound High frequencies dissipate faster than low. loud tuning fork versus soft tuning fork.

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ResonanceResonance system that has a natural frequency like a tight string or a tube (flute) driven by a tiny oscillating force Resonce occurs when the frequency of the force matches the natural frequency of the system.

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Interference When two waves overlap they form an interference pattern which can be either a constructive interference or a destructive interference. + = Constructive += Destructive Reinforcement Cancellation

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InterferenceInterference Constructive (in Phase) Destructive (180 ° out of phase)

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InterferenceInterference

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BeatsBeats When two different frequencies merge beats are heard The Beat frequency is the difference between the two frequencies.

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BeatsBeats

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ExerciseExercise What is the beat frequency when a sound of 256 Hz meets a sound of 260 Hz Given: F1=256 Hz and F2= 260 Hz Wanted: F beats Solution: Use F Beats = Abs(F1 - F2) F Beats = Abs(F1 - F2) = 4 Hz

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ResonanceResonance system that has a natural frequency like a tight string or a tube (flute) driven by a tiny oscillating force Resonce occurs when the frequency of the force matches the natural frequency of the system.

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Standing Waves on a String

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Open Organ pipe

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Organ Pipe Closed at one end

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Am and Fm broadcasting AM Amplitude Modulation carrier wave 1040 1040 kHz FM Frequency Modulation 101 101 M Hz

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Am and Fm broadcasting Radio waves are electromagnetic waves Their speed is 300,000,000 m/s They travel through outer space Sound is an acoustical wave The speed of sound is 340 m/s They do not travel through outer space

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Am and Fm broadcasting Radio waves are electromagnetic waves Their speed is 300,000,000 m/s They travel through outer space Sound is an acoustical wave The speed of sound is 340 m/s They do not travel through outer space

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Carrier Frequency

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AM broadcasting

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Fm broadcasting

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Sound Waves Sound waves are divided into three categories that cover different frequency ranges Audible waves lie within the range of sensitivity of the.

Sound Waves Sound waves are divided into three categories that cover different frequency ranges Audible waves lie within the range of sensitivity of the.

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