2 25.1 Vibration of a Pendulum The period of the pendulum depends only on the length of a pendulum and the acceleration of gravity.
3 Period The time it takes for one complete cycle of motion. Represented by the symbol TUnit of seconds
4 FrequencyThe number of cycles completed in a unit of time (usually seconds)Represented by the symbol fUnit of s-1 (also known as Hertz)
5 Period and Frequency f = 1/T and T = 1/f Period and frequency are inversely related.f = 1/T and T = 1/f
6 A plucked string vibrates back and forth10 times each second. What is the period?1/10 sWhat is the frequency?10 cycles per second (10 Hz)
7 What is a wave?A wave is an means by which energy is transferred from one place to another via periodic disturbances
8 Waves transfer energyNote that, while energy is transferred from point A to point B, the particles in the medium do not move from A to B.Individual particles of the medium merely vibrate back and forth in simple harmonic motionThe rate of energy transfer is proportional to the square of the amplitudeWhen amplitude is doubled, the energy carried increases by a factor of 4.
9 25.2 Wave DescriptionThe source of all waves is something that vibrates.The back-and-forth vibratory motion of a swinging pendulum is called simple harmonic motion.
10 25.2 Wave DescriptionA sine curve is a pictorial representation of a wave.
11 Wave Parts Amplitude - the maximum displacement from equilibrium. The high points on a wave are called crests.The low points on a wave are called troughs.The wavelength of a wave is the distance from one part of a wave to the next identical part.
12 25.3 Wave MotionWhen energy is transferred by a wave from a vibrating source to a distant receiver, no matter is transferred between the two points.
13 Mechanical WavesWaves that require a physical medium to travel through.Examples of physical media are water, air, string, slinky.
14 Electromagnetic waves Waves that do not require a physical medium.Comprised of oscillating electric and magnetic fieldsExamples include x-rays, visible light, radio waves, etc.
15 25.4 Wave SpeedYou can calculate the speed of a wave by multiplying the wavelength by the frequency.
16 Wave speedWave speed is determined completely by the characteristics of the mediumFor an unchanging medium, wave speed is constant
17 25.4 Wave Speedthink!If a water wave vibrates up and down two times each second and the distance between wave crests is 1.5 m, what is the frequency of the wave? What is its wavelength? What is its speed?Answer:The frequency of the wave is 2 Hz; its wavelength is 1.5 m; and its wave speed is 3 m/s.
18 25.5 Transverse WavesParticles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction of energy transferYou should be able to identify crests, troughs, wavelength (distance traveled during one full cycle), and amplitudeCrestTrough
19 25.6 Longitudinal WavesParticles of the medium move parallel to the direction of energy transferBe able to Identify compressions, rarefactions, wavelengthsCompressions Rarefactions
20 25.7 InterferenceThe combination of two or more waves in a medium at the same time.Matter cannot occupy the same space at the same time, but energy can.
21 25.7 InterferenceThe Superposition Principle describes what happens when waves interfere…Waves (energy) pass through each other completely unaffectedThe medium will be displaced an amount equal to the vector sum of what the waves would have done individually
27 Interference patterns Out of phase – destructive interferenceIn phase – constructive interference
28 25.8 Standing WavesA wave pattern that results when two waves of the same frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere.
29 25.8 Standing WavesOnly certain frequencies produce standing wave patterns.
30 25.8 Standing WavesNodes are areas of complete destructive interference and have no displacementAntinodes are areas of constructive interference and have maxiumum displacement
31 25.9 The Doppler EffectAs a wave source approaches, an observer encounters waves with a higher frequency. As the wave source moves away, an observer encounters waves with a lower frequency.
32 25.9 The Doppler EffectThe greater the speed of the source, the greater will be the Doppler effect.Family Video
33 25.9 The Doppler Effect The Doppler effect also occurs for light. When a light source approaches, there is an increase in its measured frequency (blue shift)When it recedes, there is a decrease in its frequency (red shift)
34 26.1 The Origin of SoundAll sounds originate in the vibrations of material objects.Pitch is the human perception of frequency
35 26.1 The Origin of SoundThe normal range of human hearing is 20 to 20,000 hertz.Sound waves with frequencies below 20 hertz are called infrasonic.Sound waves with frequencies above 20,000 hertz are called ultrasonic.
36 26.2 Sound in Air Consider sound waves in a tube. When the prong of a tuning fork next to the tube moves toward the tube, a compression enters the tube.When the prong swings away, in the opposite direction, a rarefaction follows the compression.As the source vibrates, a series of compressions and rarefactions is produced.
37 26.3 Media That Transmit Sound The speed of sound differs in different materials.In general, sound is transmitted faster in liquids than in gases, and still faster in solids.Sound cannot travel in a vacuum.Bell in vacuum
38 26.4 Speed of SoundThe speed of sound depends on the characteristics of the medium. A material’s temperature, mass of particles, density, and elasticity are all factors.Helium & Sulfur Hexafluoride- In room temperature air, sound travels about 340 m/s- In water, sound travels about 1200 m/s- In aluminum, sound travels about 5000 m/s
39 26.6 Natural FrequencyWhen any object composed of an elastic material is disturbed, it vibrates at its own special set of frequencies, which together form its special sound.
40 26.7 Forced VibrationSounding boards are an important part of all stringed musical instruments because they are forced into vibration and produce the sound.
41 26.8 ResonanceIf the frequency of a forced vibration matches an object’s natural frequency, resonance dramatically increases the amplitude.Resonance occurs whenever successive impulses are applied to a vibrating object in rhythm with its natural frequency.
42 Resonance Videos How to Break a Glass Jaime Vendera Tacoma Narrows Bridge
43 ReflectionThe bouncing of a wave when it encounters the boundary between two different media
44 Fixed End ReflectionAt a fixed boundary, waves are inverted as they are reflected.
45 Free End ReflectionAt a free boundary, waves are reflected on the same side of equilibrium