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Chapter 10 Waves. Chapter 1o Section 1 The Nature of Waves.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Waves. Chapter 1o Section 1 The Nature of Waves."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Waves

2 Chapter 1o Section 1 The Nature of Waves

3 What is a wave? Wave – a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space

4 What is a wave? Wave – a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space 1.Molecules pass energy on to neighboring molecules

5 What is a wave? Wave – a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space 1.Molecules pass energy on to neighboring molecules 2.Waves carry energy not matter.

6 What is a wave? Wave – a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space 1.Molecules pass energy on to neighboring molecules 2.Waves carry energy not matter. 3.All waves are produced by something that vibrates. (anything that moves up and down or back and forth)

7 A Medium A medium is a material through which a wave travels. – can be solid, liquid, or gas – not all waves need a medium to travel through Example – Light waves or Radio Waves

8 Mechanical Waves A mechanical wave is a wave that can travel only through matter. (solid, liquid, gas) – Example: Sound wave Question: Is there sound in space?

9 Is their sound in space?

10 Mechanical Waves A mechanical wave is a wave that can travel only through matter. (solid, liquid, gas) – Transverse waves vs. Compressional waves

11 Transverse waves Matter in a medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction that the wave travels. AKA an S-Wave Ex. Water waves

12 Compressional Waves Matter in the medium moves in the same direction that the wave travels. AKA P-waves Ex. Sound waves

13 Combination of Waves Some waves are not purely transverse or compressional but instead will have a combination of both types of waves. Ex. Seismic waves

14 ayer/environment/environment-natural- disasters/tsunamis/tsunami-101.html ayer/environment/environment-natural- disasters/tsunamis/tsunami-101.html ayer/environment/environment-natural- disasters/earthquakes/earthquake-101.html ayer/environment/environment-natural- disasters/earthquakes/earthquake-101.html

15 Wave Properties Chapter 10 Section 2

16 Waves can differ in… 1.How much energy they carry 2.How fast they travel 3.How they look

17 Parts of a Wave Transverse waves – Crests – the high points – Troughs – the lowest points

18 Parts of a Wave Compression waves – compressions – the dense regions – rarefactions – the less dense regions

19 What is Wavelength? The distance between one point in the wave and the nearest point just like it.

20 Frequency… Frequency is how many wavelengths pass a fixed point each second 1.# expressed in hertz (Hz) 2.As frequency increases, wavelength decreases 3.The frequency of a wave equals the rate of vibration of the source that creates it.

21 Frequency A period of a wave is the amount of time it takes one wavelength to pass a point. As the frequency of a wave increases, the period decreases. Period has units of seconds.

22 Wave Speed Wave velocity, or v, describes how fast the wave moves forward. 1.Velocity = wavelength x frequency or v = λ x f 2.light waves travel faster than sound waves (ex. thunder and lightning, baseball bat) 3.Sound waves travel faster in liquids and solids than in gas. 4.Light waves travel faster in gases and empty space than in liquids and solids.

23 Amplitude Amplitude is the measure of the energy in a wave. Amplitude of a compressional wave is related to how tightly the medium is pushed together at the compression – the denser the compressions, the larger the amplitude is and the more energy the wave carries – the less dense the rarefactions, the larger the amplitude and the more energy the wave carries

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25 The Behavior of Waves Chapter 10 Section 3

26 Reflection Reflection occurs when a wave strikes an object and bounces off of it.

27 Reflection Reflection occurs when a wave strikes an object and bounces off of it. – All types of waves can be reflected – The angle of incidence of a wave is always equal to the angle of reflection.

28 Reflection Reflection occurs when a wave strikes an object and bounces off of it. – All types of waves can be reflected – The angle of incidence of a wave is always equal to the angle of reflection. Normal – an imaginary line perpendicular to a reflective surface Angle of incidence – the angle formed by the wave striking the surface and the normal Angle of reflection – the angle formed by the reflected wave and the normal

29 Refraction Refraction – the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another

30 Refraction Refraction – the bending of a wave caused by a change in its speed as it moves from one medium to another – The greater the change in speed is, the more the wave bends – When a wave passes into a material that slows it down, the wave is bent toward the normal – When a wave passes into a material that speeds it up, the wave is bent away from the normal.

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32 Diffraction – an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it

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34 Diffraction Diffraction – an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it – If the object is smaller than the wavelength, the wave diffracts a lot. – If the obstacle is much larger than the wavelength, the wave does not diffract much – The larger the obstacle is compared to the wavelength, the less the waves will diffract.

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36 Diffraction and Radio Waves AM radio waves have longer wavelengths than FM radio waves. – Because of these longer wavelengths, AM radio waves diffract around obstacles like buildings and mountains. – AM radio reception is often better than FM reception around these large structures.

37 Interference The ability of two or more waves to combine and form a new wave.

38 Interference The ability of two or more waves to combine and form a new wave. 1.Waves pass right through each other and continue in their original direction.

39 Interference The ability of two or more waves to combine and form a new wave. 1.Waves pass right through each other and continue in their original direction. 2.New wave exists only while the two original waves continue to overlap

40 Interference The ability of two or more waves to combine and form a new wave. 1.Waves pass right through each other and continue in their original direction. 2.New wave exists only while the two original waves continue to overlap 3.Constructive interference – waves add together 4.Destructive interference – waves subtract from each other

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42 Standing Waves Standing waves – a wave pattern that stays in one place

43 Standing Waves Standing waves – a wave pattern that stays in one place – Form when waves of equal wavelength and amplitude that are traveling in opposite directions continuously interfere with each other. – Nodes form at the places where two waves always cancel each other.

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45 Resonance Resonance – the ability of an object to vibrate by absorbing energy at its natural frequency.


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