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Quick remarks on Economics and Health Vicente Ortún Madrid, October 22 nd 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Quick remarks on Economics and Health Vicente Ortún Madrid, October 22 nd 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quick remarks on Economics and Health Vicente Ortún Madrid, October 22 nd 2011

2 3 remarks 1.Evidence based policy...from the Economics discipline perspective 2.Health and the economy 3.Europe today: Competitiveness and welfare state

3 Evidence based policy Death penalty US 1975 re-established with biased evidence Practice makes perfect or referral effect? In search of causality –Experimental research –Natural experiments or quasi-experimental –Observational studies with longitudinal data

4 Health determinants rich countries Nutrition and economic growth (mid XVIII th century to mid XIX th century) Public Health (last decades XIX th century and first decades XX th century) Health Services (since 1940, 60, 80... it depends on countries) Cutler D, Deaton A, Lleras-Muney A. The determinants of mortality. J Ec Perspectives 2006; 20(3): 97-120. González B, Pinilla J. The impact of medical technology on health: A longitudinal analysis of ischemic heart disease. Value in Health 2008; 11(1): 88-96.

5 Crisis and welfare But... makes sense to measure the success of countries by GDP growth? Stiglitz J, Sen A, Fitoussi JP. Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress. 14 Setembro 2009.

6 Welfare: many dimensions - Income, consumption and wealth - Health - Education - Personal activities, including work - Voice and influence in governance - Social connections and relationships - Environment (present and future conditions) - Insecurity - economic and physical

7 Effects of crisis in health Depend on the institutional context and the layering of civil society Welfare States - Basic pensions increase reduces excess mortality in 'old‘ - Policies aimed at lone parents reduce child mortality China’s great famine 1959-61

8 Unemployment rich countries Increases mortality (Brenner) Reduces mortality (Ruhm) Less tobacco consumption and weight loss More physical activity during free time

9 Crisis in developing countries Very virulent in developing countries (Mexico 1996, SouthEast Asia 1997…) Impoverishment, unemployment, inflation, currency devaluation... It affects the most vulnerable groups: children, elderly, poor, rural... by way of loss of income and social security / health With reflections on various health indicators: infant mortality, low birth weight, incidence of diseases...

10 Russia From 1990 to 1994 Standardized mortality increased by 30%, particularly in men of working age (alcohol, malnutrition, external causes...) Life expectancy for men dropped from 64 to 58 years (women, 74 to 71)

11 …Russia Gorbachev alcohol prohibition Massive privatization: Unemployment - Working age men increased mortality - Reduction in life expectancy - Social capital mitigates these effects Misreading of the fall of the Berlin Wall

12 Finland Severe recession in same years (1990 to 1994) than Russia: Unemployment 2 to 18% -No adverse effects on health -On the contray, lower alcohol consumption and reductions of socio-economics gradient in mortality -Nordic welfare states

13 It seems that… Not all economic crises are equal and have the same effects on health Public policy can prevent and cure many of the effects of the economic crisis on health Strong institutions are key

14 Characterizing medical systems (any is best in all dimensions) 1.On average, medical spending is worth it David Cutler. Your money or your life 2.More spending is not always worth it Elliott Fisher et al. Annals Internal Medicine 2003 3.Some care is underprovided Adults in developed countries receive about half of needed medical care for the leading causes of death and disability McGlynn et al. NEJM 2003; 348: 2635-45

15 Daily quality chasms Hands washing Surgical check list Drug use C-section

16 Sir Mike Richards: Extent and causes of international variations in drug usage. July 2010.


18 Avui mateix per Ricard Meneu


20 Enthoven A. NEJM 2011; e44

21 National Institute for Welfare Enhancement To avoid political shorsightness and achieve welfare state consolidation in a competitive economy Political agreement on procedures with democratic checks and balances on and independent body Intersectoral perspective and due account to intergenerational issues González B, Ortún V. JECH 2010; 64:497-499

22 Quick remarks on Economics and Health Vicente Ortún Madrid, October 22 nd 2011

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