Presentation on theme: "Earth Systems, Resources, and the Environment"— Presentation transcript:
1 Earth Systems, Resources, and the Environment Chapter 1.1 & Chapter 25
2 Earth Science Objectives section 1.1 Name the four major branches of Earth ScienceDescribe what is studied in each of the major branches of Earth ScienceList the major systems of the EarthGive examples and describe how the major systems interrelate
3 Earth Science Objectives section 1.1 Understand how geochemical cycles relate to Earth systemsDescribe the geochemical cycle for CarbonDescribe the geochemical cycle for Water
4 Earth Science Earth Science includes four major branches: Astronomy is the study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphereMeteorology is the study of the air surrounding the planet.
5 Earth Science Earth Science includes four major branches: Geology is the study of the materials that make up the Earth and the processes that form the Earth.Oceanography is the study of the Earth’s oceans.
6 Earth SystemsAnything that happens to one thing on Earth affects everything elseWe depend on the Earth (all the systems) for survivalEverything that we have is made from Earth materials with the input of energy from two sources.The two major sources of energy on Earth are the Sun, and heat from Earth’s interior
7 Earth Systems There are four major Earth systems: Lithosphere – uppermost solid layer of the mantle and the crust (rides on the Asthenosphere)Atmosphere – air that surrounds the EarthHydrosphere – All the water on Earth often called the Water cycle.Biosphere – all living things on the Earth.
10 Earth SystemsEarth scientists study how the four spheres are interrelated.A system is a group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
11 Earth SystemsGeochemical cycles – the Earth is essentially a closed system so there is a fixed amount of each element.Each element cycles through the systems on Earth.Often an element combines with other elements to form more complex compounds, or is broken down into simpler compounds.For example: Carbon
12 Geochemical cycles Carbon cycle: How does carbon cycle through the four systems?
14 Geochemical cycles Water cycle: How does water through the four systems?
15 Geochemical cycles – Water H2O There are four major Earth systems:
16 25.1 What are resources? 25.1 Objectives Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resourcesIdentify and understand how renewable and non-renewable resources are distributed on Earth
17 25.1 What are Resources?Natural resources include Earth’s air, water, land, and all living things.Renewable resources are things on Earth that can be reproduced in a short period of time. Examples:TreesAgricultural crops (corn, wheat, rice, tomatoes, etc.)Clean drinking waterLiving thingsEnergy from the Sun
18 25.1 What are Resources?It is possible to use renewable resources at a rate faster than they can be “renewed” Examples:Hunting species of animals into extinctionSpecies invasion into ecosystems caused by human activitySea lamprey introduced into the Great LakesCutting trees down faster than they can regrow in a forest (deforestation)Haiti, upper Great Lakes region in the late 1800’s
19 25.1 What are Resources?Non-Renewable resources are things on Earth that cannot be reproduced in a short period of time. Examples:Fossil fuels (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas)SoilDiamonds, Gold, Copper, Iron OreNon-renewable resources are replaced slowly by geologic chemical and physical properties that may take hundreds of millions of years to reproduce.
20 25.1 What are Resources?Non-renewable resources therefore cannot be replaced in a human timeframe and are considered non-replaceable.We must either find more of these resources if possible, or slow down the use of then to make them last.Sustainable societies find a way to use energy and renewable resources at the same rate as the can be renewed.Sustainable societies try conserve non-renewable energy or resources, or find alternatives where possible.
21 25.1 What are Resources?Our economy and health depend on both renewable and non-renewable resources.Our survival as a species also depends on these resources (especially clean water, air, and soil)The human world population is growing and putting increasing pressure on both renewable and non- renewable resources.
23 25.2 Land Resources 25.2 Objectives Describe why land is considered to be a natural resourceRecognize the need to protect Earth’s land as a resourceDescribe the importance of productive land to organisms on Earth
24 25.2 Land ResourcesArable soil is necessary for crop growth in addition to water, nutrients, and sunlight.Topsoil takes thousands of years to form from the parent rock.Each year Earth loses about seven percent of it’s topsoil, yet they must grow more food to support the increasing human population.The land also supports natural vegetation which in turn supports wildlife.
25 25.3 Air resources Objectives Recognize that the atmosphere is an Earth resource.Describe the importance of clean air to organisms on Earth.
26 2.3 Air resourcesMost of the life on Earth depends on the balanced exchange of gases in the atmosphere.Human activities have altered this balance by releasing more carbon dioxide into the air while burning fossil fuels.Pollutants released into the atmosphere air harmful to human health.Air pollution can also come from natural sources ( volcanic eruptions and forest fires)
27 25.4 Water resources Objectives Explain the importance of clean freshwater to organisms on Earth.Explain the physical and chemical properties of water.Explain how the properties of water support life on Earth.Analyze how water is distributed and used on Earth.Identify ways in which humans can reduce the need for increasing production of freshwater resources.
28 25.4 Water ResourcesThe Earth is often called “The Blue Planet” or “The Water planet” because 71 percent of the planet is covered with water.Water is essential for life to exist. Biological actions take place with the aid of water.Water is the “universal solvent”. Carries nutrients in, and waste products out of cells.Water exists as a solid, liquid, or gas within the normal temperature ranges on Earth.
29 25.4 Water ResourcesWater has a high specific heat. It takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water.Water allows organisms that live in the water to survive because of temperature stability.Water helps to stabilize the temperature of the planet.
30 25.4 Water ResourcesSolid water is less dense than liquid water (only substance on Earth)Allows organisms to live in colder temperature because the ice forms on top of bodies of waterFreezing water also helps to break up rock as it gets in the cracks and expands
31 25.4 Water ResourcesFresh water is not distributed evenly across the Earth.Fresh water is held in surface waters or in the groundwater in aquifers.In many dry areas water is pulled from these aquifers deep in the ground to irrigate crops. These aquifers are being depleted faster than they can be recharged.Aquifers have been polluted in many areas by chemicals leaching into the ground from industrial activities.
33 25.4 Water Resources Water management Dams & Reservoirs – these provide water, but have other environmental consequences (fish migration, beaches, etc)Transporting fresh water (pipelines, aqueducts, etc.)Groundwater (about 25% of water use in the U.S.)Desalination – distillation of salt water to make fresh water.