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Earth Systems, Resources, and the Environment

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Systems, Resources, and the Environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Systems, Resources, and the Environment
Chapter 1.1 & Chapter 25

2 Earth Science Objectives section 1.1
Name the four major branches of Earth Science Describe what is studied in each of the major branches of Earth Science List the major systems of the Earth Give examples and describe how the major systems interrelate

3 Earth Science Objectives section 1.1
Understand how geochemical cycles relate to Earth systems Describe the geochemical cycle for Carbon Describe the geochemical cycle for Water

4 Earth Science Earth Science includes four major branches:
Astronomy is the study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere Meteorology is the study of the air surrounding the planet.

5 Earth Science Earth Science includes four major branches:
Geology is the study of the materials that make up the Earth and the processes that form the Earth. Oceanography is the study of the Earth’s oceans.

6 Earth Systems Anything that happens to one thing on Earth affects everything else We depend on the Earth (all the systems) for survival Everything that we have is made from Earth materials with the input of energy from two sources. The two major sources of energy on Earth are the Sun, and heat from Earth’s interior

7 Earth Systems There are four major Earth systems:
Lithosphere – uppermost solid layer of the mantle and the crust (rides on the Asthenosphere) Atmosphere – air that surrounds the Earth Hydrosphere – All the water on Earth often called the Water cycle. Biosphere – all living things on the Earth.

8 Earth Systems - Lithosphere

9 Earth Systems - Hydrosphere

10 Earth Systems Earth scientists study how the four spheres are interrelated. A system is a group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.

11 Earth Systems Geochemical cycles – the Earth is essentially a closed system so there is a fixed amount of each element. Each element cycles through the systems on Earth. Often an element combines with other elements to form more complex compounds, or is broken down into simpler compounds. For example: Carbon

12 Geochemical cycles Carbon cycle:
How does carbon cycle through the four systems?

13 Geochemical cycles – Carbon C

14 Geochemical cycles Water cycle:
How does water through the four systems?

15 Geochemical cycles – Water H2O
There are four major Earth systems:

16 25.1 What are resources? 25.1 Objectives
Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources Identify and understand how renewable and non-renewable resources are distributed on Earth

17 25.1 What are Resources? Natural resources include Earth’s air, water, land, and all living things. Renewable resources are things on Earth that can be reproduced in a short period of time. Examples: Trees Agricultural crops (corn, wheat, rice, tomatoes, etc.) Clean drinking water Living things Energy from the Sun

18 25.1 What are Resources? It is possible to use renewable resources at a rate faster than they can be “renewed” Examples: Hunting species of animals into extinction Species invasion into ecosystems caused by human activity Sea lamprey introduced into the Great Lakes Cutting trees down faster than they can regrow in a forest (deforestation) Haiti, upper Great Lakes region in the late 1800’s

19 25.1 What are Resources? Non-Renewable resources are things on Earth that cannot be reproduced in a short period of time. Examples: Fossil fuels (Coal, Oil, Natural Gas) Soil Diamonds, Gold, Copper, Iron Ore Non-renewable resources are replaced slowly by geologic chemical and physical properties that may take hundreds of millions of years to reproduce.

20 25.1 What are Resources? Non-renewable resources therefore cannot be replaced in a human timeframe and are considered non-replaceable. We must either find more of these resources if possible, or slow down the use of then to make them last. Sustainable societies find a way to use energy and renewable resources at the same rate as the can be renewed. Sustainable societies try conserve non-renewable energy or resources, or find alternatives where possible.

21 25.1 What are Resources? Our economy and health depend on both renewable and non-renewable resources. Our survival as a species also depends on these resources (especially clean water, air, and soil) The human world population is growing and putting increasing pressure on both renewable and non- renewable resources.

22 World population growth

23 25.2 Land Resources 25.2 Objectives
Describe why land is considered to be a natural resource Recognize the need to protect Earth’s land as a resource Describe the importance of productive land to organisms on Earth

24 25.2 Land Resources Arable soil is necessary for crop growth in addition to water, nutrients, and sunlight. Topsoil takes thousands of years to form from the parent rock. Each year Earth loses about seven percent of it’s topsoil, yet they must grow more food to support the increasing human population. The land also supports natural vegetation which in turn supports wildlife.

25 25.3 Air resources Objectives
Recognize that the atmosphere is an Earth resource. Describe the importance of clean air to organisms on Earth.

26 2.3 Air resources Most of the life on Earth depends on the balanced exchange of gases in the atmosphere. Human activities have altered this balance by releasing more carbon dioxide into the air while burning fossil fuels. Pollutants released into the atmosphere air harmful to human health. Air pollution can also come from natural sources ( volcanic eruptions and forest fires)

27 25.4 Water resources Objectives
Explain the importance of clean freshwater to organisms on Earth. Explain the physical and chemical properties of water. Explain how the properties of water support life on Earth. Analyze how water is distributed and used on Earth. Identify ways in which humans can reduce the need for increasing production of freshwater resources.

28 25.4 Water Resources The Earth is often called “The Blue Planet” or “The Water planet” because 71 percent of the planet is covered with water. Water is essential for life to exist. Biological actions take place with the aid of water. Water is the “universal solvent”. Carries nutrients in, and waste products out of cells. Water exists as a solid, liquid, or gas within the normal temperature ranges on Earth.

29 25.4 Water Resources Water has a high specific heat. It takes a lot of energy to raise the temperature of water. Water allows organisms that live in the water to survive because of temperature stability. Water helps to stabilize the temperature of the planet.

30 25.4 Water Resources Solid water is less dense than liquid water (only substance on Earth) Allows organisms to live in colder temperature because the ice forms on top of bodies of water Freezing water also helps to break up rock as it gets in the cracks and expands

31 25.4 Water Resources Fresh water is not distributed evenly across the Earth. Fresh water is held in surface waters or in the groundwater in aquifers. In many dry areas water is pulled from these aquifers deep in the ground to irrigate crops. These aquifers are being depleted faster than they can be recharged. Aquifers have been polluted in many areas by chemicals leaching into the ground from industrial activities.

32 Earth Systems - Hydrosphere

33 25.4 Water Resources Water management
Dams & Reservoirs – these provide water, but have other environmental consequences (fish migration, beaches, etc) Transporting fresh water (pipelines, aqueducts, etc.) Groundwater (about 25% of water use in the U.S.) Desalination – distillation of salt water to make fresh water.

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