2 Physical PropertyA characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change, such as density, color or hardnessColor, shape, odor, weight, volume, texture, state and densityApple: don’t have to change it to see that it is round and red
3 General Physical Properties SizeShapeColorSmellWeight or MassVolume
4 Specific Physical Properties Thermal ConductivitySolubilityDuctilityMagnetismStateDensityMalleability
5 Thermal Conductivity The rate at which a substance transfers heat. Example: Plastic Foam is a poor conductor
6 Solubility The ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance Example: Flavored drink mix dissolves in water
7 The ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire DuctilityThe ability of a substance to be pulled into a wireElectrical Conductivity: describes how freely charges can move in a material. Copper is often used to make wiring because it is ductile and it has a high electrical conductivity.
8 Example: lodestone is a naturally magnetic rock MagnetismThe property of some materials to attract iron or objects containing iron.Example: lodestone is a naturally magnetic rock
9 Example: Ice is water in the solid state The physical form in which a substance exists, such as a solid, liquid or gas.Example: Ice is water in the solid state
10 The mass per unit volume of a substance. DensityThe mass per unit volume of a substance.Example: Lead is very dense, so it makes a good sinker for a fishing line
11 MalleabilityThe ability of a substance to be rolled or pounded into thin sheets.Example: Aluminum can be rolled into sheets to make foil
12 Describes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactions Chemical PropertyDescribes a substance’s ability to participate in chemical reactionsExample: When wood is burned, ash and smoke are created. The new substances have very different properties than the original wood
13 The ability of a substance to burn. FlammabilityThe ability of a substance to burn.Example: Wood has the property of flammability. However, ash and smoke can’t burn, so the have the chemical property of nonflammability.
14 ReactivityThe ability of two or more substances to combine and form one or more new substancesExample: Car Example*Iron on this car has the chemical property of reactivity with oxygen. When iron is exposed to oxygen, it rusts. *The bumper of this car still looks new because it is coated with chromium, which has a chemical property of nonreactivity with oxygen.
15 Comparing Chemical and Physical Properties Physical properties are easy to observe. You can measure the density or the hardness without changing anything.Chemical properties are harder to observe. You can only see that wood is flammable when it is actually burning. BUT that piece of wood is still considered flammable even when it’s not burning.