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Teilchenphysik – ohne Beschleuniger und Kosmologie 31.5.07 Sommersemester 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Teilchenphysik – ohne Beschleuniger und Kosmologie 31.5.07 Sommersemester 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teilchenphysik – ohne Beschleuniger und Kosmologie Sommersemester 2007

2 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 2 2. CP-Verletzung

3 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 3 3. Symmetries and the World according to Escher mirror image time H.W. Wilschut matter anti-matter start identical to start anti-particle particle e + e - Time reversal violation can be measured at low energies PCT

4 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 4 BABAR 2001

5 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 5 3. Prinzip: CP-Verletzung (P - known) P - + elementary particle + - spin EDM + - T + - (CP big deal) CP T S. Paul, TUM

6 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 6 ILL: the EDM experiment

7 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 7 Final Sussex-RAL-ILL result (C.A. Baker et al. PRL 97(2006) ) | d n | < 2.9 x ecm (90% CL) use of 199 Hg co-magnetometer d( 199 Hg) < 8.7 × ecm 50 pT

8 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 8 EDM: PSI F overall = 100

9 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 9 The PNPI experiment Polarize neutrons || B 0 while filling the bottle Apply B( w t) B 0 to get neutron spin to B 0 Wait for a time T (~100 s): spin precesses about B 0 Apply B( w t) to get neutron spin || to B 0 ; if w w L = (w - w L ) T Analyze polarization: P = P 0 cos( ) EDM

10 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 10 Improvements higher degree of polarization – triple polarizers: a = 0.75 higher electric field E - new material (CERAN): E = 10 kV/cm more neutrons N - FRM II + UCN source, more efficient neutron guides longer storage time T - better coating, better stability of B 0 : T 150 s Systematic errors: stable B 0 (3fT!) - 3 He magnetometer with SQIDs (W. Heil, Mainz), better shielding, polarization and analysis with the same arrangement Mainly performed by the group at PNPI (V. Lobashev et al.): official collaboration agreement with TUM

11 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 11 Überblick zur die Sensitivität von Neutronexperimenten EDM: Energy: E ~ eV = eV n-Ladung: Impuls: p/p ~ (Winkelauflösung von 1Å auf 10m) Feinstrukturkonstante / ~ (Messung von: n v n ) Quark-Mischung Vud ~ 7 x Lebensdauer / ~ Gravitation und QM g/g ~ 10 -2

12 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 12 EDM Strong CP problem Axion als pseudoskalares Teilchen

13 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 13 Axion limits 2007 PVLAS UCN other limits Baeßler et al. Westphal, Baeßler, H.A. arXiv:hep-ph/

14 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg Prinzip: Mischung der Quarks -Zerfall: ~ G F 2 n-Zerfall:~ G F 2 = cos 2 C. G F 2 K-Zerfall: :~ G F 2 = sin 2 C. G F 2 Quarkmischung ist Rotation im Flavour-Raum (Null-Summe) CKM-Matrix ist unitär!

15 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 15 Unitarity Check: The Quark Mixing CKM Matrix Parametrization: 3 angles, and a phase A,, are real

16 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 16 Unitarity Check II: PDG: = 59° 13°, = 24° 4°

17 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 17 Unitarity Check II dsf V ud = /2 From A. Buras, Munich

18 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 18 Unitarity check Mixing of quarks = rotation in flavor-space: Test in first row: |V ud | 2 + |V us | 2 + |V ub | 2 cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ + 0 < 1? : Cabibbo 95% 5% %V ub V us V ud

19 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 19 Situation

20 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 20 The PDG feels it has the right to redefine anything it wants Is there a general decline of standards? 1994: The centimeters on the ruler on p. 227 of the booklet are 0.97 cm long, because: a) a)The booklet were returned from the printer at 0.25 times the speed of light a) a)A theorist is in charge of the PDG b) b)The PDG feels it has the right to redefine anything it wants c) c)There is a general decline of standards d) d)There was an international conspiracy e) e)It was a congressionally mandated cost-saving measure f) f)PDG gives you more cm/inch than anyone else

21 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 21 V us Kaon semileptonic decays -K + 0 l + l -K 0 L - l + l s u l + l = (2.12±0.08%), = -2.0% for K + and 0.5% for K 0 I + = ± , I 0 = ± = (2.56 ± 0.033) MeV, =(4.937 ± 0.053) MeV f(0) = ± 0.008, f(0) = ± V us = ± exp ± th = ± (PDG 2002) V us = ± exp ± th = ± (PDG 2002)

22 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 22 Some news in 2005: V us b

23 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 23 CKM unitarity summary Phase of consolidation Achievements: -New K results -New A result -Halving of the theoretical error in radiative corrections Continue to measure lifetime and correlation coefficients until limited by theory Lifetime Formfactors

24 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 24 Neutronlebensdauer Methode: UCN in Flaschen Präzision / ~ TUM ~ % elastische Reflexion ~ 0.01% inelastische Reflexion in meV-Bereich ~ 0.001% Absorption ± 0.7 sec ± 0.8 sec TUM: magnetische Speicherung: keine Verluste

25 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 25 2 values ± 0.8 sec Serebrov et al ± 0.7 sec PDG 2005 = 2 x = 2 x 10 -6

26 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 26 Neutrons and Big Bang Nucleo Synthesis Problem 1s after Big Bang: -What does a gas of n and p, when the universe expands and the temperature drops? Inputs : -neutron lifetime -Cross sections -neutrino cross-sections 1/ -nuclear physics 0.1 – 1 MeV (measured!) Outputs: H, D, He, Li -number of particle families N -density of (ordinary) matter in universe

27 Hartmut Abele, University of Heidelberg 27 In more detail Weak reaction rate n + e + p + e n + e p + e Hubble expansion rate Equating gives freeze out temp. Free neutron beta-decay Neutron lifetime PDG 2006 Serebrov et al (1+ 3g A 2 ) astro-ph/ v2 Y p = (6 ) Y p = (6)


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