Presentation on theme: "Mental Disorders. May be defined as a mental disorder if the behavior: causes a person to suffer is self-destructive seriously impairs the person’s."— Presentation transcript:
May be defined as a mental disorder if the behavior: causes a person to suffer is self-destructive seriously impairs the person’s ability to interact with others endangers others Social and cultural deviance does not factor in!
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Handbook to classify mental disorders Specific criteria given Symptoms Duration Cultural and medical considerations Five part diagnosis Axis I: Primary clinical problem Axis II: Personality disorders Axis III: General medical conditions Axis IV: Social and environmental stressors Axis V: Global assessment of overall functioning
The danger of over-diagnosis “Yes, your son has ADHD” The power of diagnostic labels “I am schizophrenic. I am weird.” Confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems “My boyfriend broke up with me. I feel sad. I guess I have Major Depressive Disorder.” The illusion of objectivity and universality “This was made by very smart people. Surely it has to be right!” Explosion of mental diagnoses
Major Depressive Disorder A mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness) behavior (loss of interest in one’s usual activities) cognition (thoughts of hopelessness) body function (fatigue and loss of appetite) Symptoms Depressed mood Reduced interest in almost all activities Significant weight gain or loss Sleeping too much or too little Fatigue Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Reduced ability to think, concentrate Recurrent thoughts of death DSM IV REQUIRES FIVE OF THESE IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS!
Manic Episode A period of excessive euphoria, motivation, and racing thoughts Lasts from a few hours to several weeks Bipolar Disorder A mood disorder in which major depressive and mania episodes occur. General Anxiety Disorder Continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread apprehension difficulties in concentration
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person who has experienced a traumatic or life-threatening event has symptoms such as psychic numbing, reliving the trauma, increased physiological arousal Diagnosed only if symptoms persist for six months or longer May immediately follow event or occur later
Phobias An exaggerated, unrealistic fear of a specific situation, activity, or object Agoraphobia A set of phobias, often set off by a panic attack, involving the basic fear of being away from a safe place or person. Dependency Emotional and/or physical reliance on a substance that typical changes mood, emotional state, or condition
Dissociative Identity Disorder A controversial disorder marked by the appearance within one person of two or more distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits Better known as Multiple Personality Disorder Schizophrenia Can include: Bizarre delusions Hallucinations and heightened sensory awareness Disorganized, incoherent speech Grossly disorganized and inappropriate behavior Impaired cognitive abilities
Obsessive-compulsive disorder An anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in obsessions repetitive, persistent thoughts and compulsions repetitive, ritualized behaviors designed to reduce anxiety Person understands that the ritual behavior is senseless but guilt mounts if the behavior is not performed.