# 2015 Adapted from: Chumbler - Properties of Matter

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2015 Adapted from: Chumbler - Properties of Matter
Phases of Matter 2015 Adapted from: Chumbler - Properties of Matter

States of Matter There are four states (phases) of matter. They are:
Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

Classification Classification of the four states of matter is based on: Particle arrangement Energy of particles Distance between particles (Particles are just a small measurement of matter)

Solids Particles are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position.
They have a definite shape and a definite volume.

Solids Particle Arrangement: Examples:

Liquids Particles are tightly packed, but enough apart to slide over one another. They have an indefinite shape and definite volume. They take the shape of their container.

Liquids Particle Arrangement: Examples:

Gases Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely.
They have an indefinite shape and volume. This means they take the shape of the container and are very difficult to measure.

Gases Particle Arrangement: Examples:

Plasmas An ionized gas. A good conductor of electricity
Plasma is affected by magnetic fields. Plasma have an indefinite shape and volume (just like gases). Of these the least discussed in most texts is plasma, even though it is the most abundant of all states. 99% of all matter in the universe is plasma.

Plasmas Particle Arrangement: Examples:
The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are freely streaming through the positively charged ions (blue). Examples:

Phase Changes  2015

Phases of Matter The Four phases (states) of matter are: Solid Liquid
Gas Plasma

Phase Changes A phase change or a change in state is when matter changes from one state of matter to another state of matter. Example: changing from liquid from gas.

Phase Changes are Physical
Phase Changes are a Physical Change. This means that the chemical properties of the substance are not changing when the phase changes. Example: Water is the same chemical if it is a solid or a gas. Only the physical properties (shape, size) are changing.

Kinetic Theory of Matter
The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that molecules are always moving. The greater the material’s internal energy, the higher temperature of that material. Heat and temperature are NOT the same thing Heat is the energy flow between objects. Temperature is an object’s kinetic energy, which is measured with a thermometer.

Heat Energy Vs. Temperature
In order for a phase change to occur, heat energy must either be absorbed or released. The particles must either move faster and farther apart OR slower and closer together in order to change to another state of matter. What determines if it melts or freezes is whether the particles are absorbing heat energy or releasing heat energy.

Types of Phase Changes The types of phase changes are Melting
Vaporization Boiling Evaporation Condensation Freezing Sublimation Deposition Ionization Deionization

Melting Melting occurs when a solid changes to a liquid.
Heat energy is absorbed or gained which allows the particles to move faster and farther apart. Heat of fusion is the amount of energy needed to change a material from the solid state to the liquid state.

Vaporization Vaporization occurs when a liquid changes to a gas.
Heat energy is absorbed or gained which allows the particles to move faster and farther apart. Heat of vaporization is the amount of energy needed to change a material from the liquid state to the gas state. Two types of vaporization: Boiling Evaporation

Boiling Boiling occurs throughout the whole liquid, and it must reach a specific temperature in order to change to a gas. This temperature is very specific and is called the boiling point. You can see boiling occur!

Evaporation Evaporation occurs when a liquid changes to a gas gradually at temperatures below the boiling point. Evaporation only occurs at the surface of the liquid. You cannot see evaporation occur!

Condensation Condensation occurs when a gas changes to a liquid.
Heat energy is released (or lost) which allows the particles to move slower and closer together. Condensation is the opposite of vaporization (boiling) and occurs at the same temperature. What determines if it vaporizes or condenses is whether the particles are absorbing heat energy or releasing heat energy.

Freezing Freezing occurs when a liquid changes to a solid.
Heat energy is released (or lost) which allows the particles to move slower and closer together. Freezing is the opposite of melting and occurs at the same temperature.

Sublimation Sublimation occurs when a solid changes to a gas.
Heat energy is absorbed or gained which allows the particles to move faster and farther apart. In order for sublimation to occur, an enormous amount of energy must be absorbed. An example of an object that sublimes is dry ice. If you touch it, it will burn you because there is so much energy present.

Deposition Deposition is when a gas goes directly to a solid state. It is the opposite of sublimation.

Ionization and Deionization
Ionization is when a gas becomes a plasma. Deionization is when a plasma becomes a gas. More information will be given on this process as we progress through the quarter.

Diagram

Concept Map

Diagram