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Introduction to Computers

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1 Introduction to Computers
Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers

2 What Is a Computer? How is a computer defined?
A computer is an electronic device that is operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory. Produces and stores results Processes data into information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful Accepts data Raw facts, figures, and symbols

3 What Is a Computer? What is the Information Processing Cycle? Input
Output Storage Communication Computers process data (input) into information (output). A computer often holds data, information and instructions in storage for future use. Some people refer to the series of input, process, output and storage activities as Information Processing Cycle.

4 The Components of a Computer
What is an input device? Input device is a hardware that is used to enter data and instructions. Keyboard Scanners Microphone Camera Mouse WebCam

5 The Components of a Computer
What is an output device? Output device is a hardware that provides information to one or more people. Printers Monitors Speakers

6 The Components of a Computer
What is the system unit? System unit is a case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data.

7 The Components of a Computer
What are two main components on the motherboard? Processor Also called a Central Processing Unit (CPU) The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer Memory Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions

8 The Components of a Computer
What is storage? Storage holds Information, Data and Instructions for future use. Storage media Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored Storage device Records and retrieves items to and from storage media

9 The Components of a Computer
What is a USB flash drive? Portable storage device Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket The average USB flash drive can hold about 500 million characters

10 The Components of a Computer
What is a hard disk? Most are housed inside the system unit. Provides greater storage capacity than a USB flash drive. It can hold more than 100 billion characters. They are enclosed in an airtight sealed case.

11 The Components of a Computer
What is a compact disc? Flat, round, portable metal disc with a plastic coating CD-ROM DVD-ROM

12 The Components of a Computer
What is a communications device? This device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers. It occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites and other transmission media.

13 Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Computers
What are the advantages of using computers? Consistency Reliability Speed Communications Storage

14 Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Computers
What are the disadvantages of using computers? Impact on Labor Force Violation of Privacy Health Risks Public Safety Impact on Environment

15 Computer Software What is software?
Consists of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do it Also called a program

16 Computer Software What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?
Allows you to interact with the software using text, graphics, and visual images such as icons. Controls how you enter data and instructions and how the screen displays information.

17 Computer Software What is system software?
Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices. What is an Operating System? Operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices. E.x. Windows XP What is an Utility Software? Utility Programs allow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs

18 Presentation Graphics
Computer Software What is application software? Programs designed to make users more productive or assist them with personal tasks. E.x. Web Browser Presentation Graphics Spreadsheet Database Word Processing

19 Computer Software What is a programmer?
JavaScript What is a programmer? Programmer is a person who writes the instructions to direct the computer to process data into information. It is also someone who develops application or system software. Web application

20 Installing and Running Programs
Step 1:Installing- is a process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer and other hardware components. Step 2: Run- once the software is installed, you can use or run it. Step 3: Use- once in the memory, the PC can carry out or execute the instructions in the program.

21 Categories of Computers
Personal Computers (desktop) Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Game Consoles Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers

22 Personal Computers What are the two most popular styles of personal computers? Apple Macintosh usually uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS X) PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system

23 Personal Computers What is a desktop computer?
A desktop computer is designed so that all of the components fit entirely on or under a desk or table.

24 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a notebook computer? A notebook is portable and small enough to fit on your lap. It is also called a laptop computer. It is more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities.

25 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a Tablet PC? Tablet PC resembles to a letter-sized slate. It allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen It is especially useful for taking notes.

26 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What are mobile devices? Internet-enabled telephone is a “smart phone” Small enough to carry in a pocket

27 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a handheld computer? Handheld computers are small enough to fit in one hand It is usually used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people.

28 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)? Provides personal organizer functions Calendar Appointment book Address book Calculator Notepad

29 Mobile Computers & Mobile Devices
What are smart phones? A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilities Game Consoles Mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games

30 Servers What types of servers are there?
A server controls access to network resources and provides centralized storage Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of connected users Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations

31 Embedded Computers What is an embedded computer?
It is a special purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product.

32 Elements of an Information System
What are information system elements? Hardware Software Data People Procedures

33 Examples of Computer Usage
What software is available for a home user? Personal Finance Management – Excel, Word Web Access - Website Communications - Chat Entertainment - Music

34 Examples of Computer Usage
What software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user? Productivity Software Specialty Software Web Usage

35 Examples of Computer Usage
What is available for a mobile user? Hardware Notebook Computers Tablet PCs Software Word Processing Spreadsheet Presentation Graphics Software

36 Examples of Computer Usage
What are the needs of a power user? Speed and large amounts of storage Types of power users Engineers Scientists Architects Desktop publishers Graphic artists

37 Examples of Computer Usage
What are the needs of the large business user? Payroll Inventory E-commerce Desktop Publishing

38 Computer Applications in Society
What are some examples of computer applications in society? Education Finance Government Health Care Science Publishing Travel Manufacturing

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