Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Computers"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Computers Chapter 1Introduction to Computers
2 What Is a Computer? How is a computer defined? A computer is an electronic device that is operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory.Produces and stores resultsProcesses data into informationData that is organized, meaningful, and usefulAccepts dataRaw facts, figures, and symbols
3 What Is a Computer? What is the Information Processing Cycle? Input OutputStorageCommunicationComputers process data (input) into information (output). A computer often holds data, information and instructions in storage for future use. Some people refer to the series of input, process, output and storage activities as Information Processing Cycle.
4 The Components of a Computer What is an input device?Input device is a hardware that is used to enter data and instructions.KeyboardScannersMicrophoneCameraMouseWebCam
5 The Components of a Computer What is an output device?Output device is a hardware that provides information to one or more people.PrintersMonitorsSpeakers
6 The Components of a Computer What is the system unit?System unit is a case that contains the electronic components of the computer that are used to process data.
7 The Components of a Computer What are two main components on the motherboard?ProcessorAlso called a Central Processing Unit (CPU)The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computerMemoryConsists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions
8 The Components of a Computer What is storage?Storage holds Information, Data and Instructions for future use.Storage mediaPhysical material on which data, instructions, and information are storedStorage deviceRecords and retrieves items to and from storage media
9 The Components of a Computer What is a USB flash drive?Portable storage deviceSmall and lightweight enough to be transported on akeychain or in a pocketThe average USB flash drive can hold about 500 million characters
10 The Components of a Computer What is a hard disk?Most are housed inside the system unit.Provides greater storage capacity than a USB flash drive.It can hold more than 100 billion characters.They are enclosed in an airtight sealed case.
11 The Components of a Computer What is a compact disc?Flat, round, portable metal disc with a plastic coatingCD-ROMDVD-ROM
12 The Components of a Computer What is a communications device?This device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers.It occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites and other transmission media.
13 Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Computers What are the advantages of using computers?ConsistencyReliabilitySpeedCommunicationsStorage
14 Advantages & Disadvantages of Using Computers What are the disadvantages of using computers?Impact on Labor ForceViolation of PrivacyHealth RisksPublic SafetyImpact on Environment
15 Computer Software What is software? Consists of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do itAlso called a program
16 Computer Software What is a graphical user interface (GUI)? Allows you to interact with the software using text, graphics, and visual images such as icons.Controls how you enterdata and instructions andhow the screen displaysinformation.
17 Computer Software What is system software? Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices.What is an Operating System?Operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices. E.x. Windows XPWhat is an Utility Software?Utility Programs allow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs
18 Presentation Graphics Computer SoftwareWhat is application software?Programs designed to make users more productive or assist them with personal tasks. E.x. Web BrowserPresentation GraphicsSpreadsheetDatabaseWord Processing
20 Installing and Running Programs Step 1:Installing- is a process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer and other hardware components.Step 2: Run- once the software is installed, you can use or run it.Step 3: Use- once in the memory, the PC can carry out or execute the instructions in the program.
21 Categories of Computers Personal Computers (desktop)Mobile Computers and Mobile DevicesGame ConsolesServersMainframesSupercomputersEmbedded Computers
22 Personal ComputersWhat are the two most popular styles of personal computers?Apple Macintosh usually uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS X)PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system
23 Personal Computers What is a desktop computer? A desktop computer is designed so that all of the components fit entirely on or under a desk or table.
24 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a notebook computer?A notebook is portable and small enough to fit on your lap.It is also called a laptop computer.It is more expensive than a desktop computer with equal capabilities.
25 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a Tablet PC?Tablet PC resembles to a letter-sized slate.It allows you to write on the screen using a digital penIt is especially useful for taking notes.
26 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What are mobile devices?Internet-enabled telephone is a “smart phone”Small enough to carry in a pocket
27 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a handheld computer?Handheld computers are small enough to fit in one handIt is usually used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people.
28 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?Provides personal organizer functionsCalendarAppointment bookAddress bookCalculatorNotepad
29 Mobile Computers & Mobile Devices What are smart phones?A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilitiesGame ConsolesMobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games
30 Servers What types of servers are there? A server controls access to network resources and provides centralized storageMainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of connected usersSupercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations
31 Embedded Computers What is an embedded computer? It is a special purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product.
32 Elements of an Information System What are information system elements?HardwareSoftwareDataPeopleProcedures
33 Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a home user?Personal Finance Management – Excel, WordWeb Access - WebsiteCommunications - ChatEntertainment - Music
34 Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user?Productivity SoftwareSpecialty SoftwareWeb Usage
35 Examples of Computer Usage What is available for a mobile user?HardwareNotebook ComputersTablet PCsSoftwareWord ProcessingSpreadsheetPresentation Graphics Software
36 Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of a power user?Speed and large amounts of storageTypes of power usersEngineersScientistsArchitectsDesktop publishersGraphic artists
37 Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of the large business user?PayrollInventoryE-commerceDesktop Publishing
38 Computer Applications in Society What are some examples of computer applications in society?EducationFinanceGovernmentHealth CareSciencePublishingTravelManufacturing