Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Information Technology Applications

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Information Technology Applications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Technology Applications
SAK1002 Information Technology Applications

2 Objectives of this course:
Student can understand about computer designs and its processes. Student know how to use current applications.


4 Objectives of this chapter:
You can… Define the term, computer and its advantages Identify the components of a computer Know its history Identify the element of information system Discuss computer application in society

5 Overview This chapter covers Computer definition and operations.
Computer generations. The components of a computer. Categories of computers Computer impact on society. GO!

6 1.1 Definition and Operations

7 What Is a Computer and What Does It Do?
1.1 Definition and Operations What Is a Computer and What Does It Do? Computer: A programmable, electronic device that accepts data, performs operations, presents the results, and can store the data or results Accepts data Raw facts, figures, and symbols Processes data into information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful Produces and stores results

8 Computer operations Input—entering data into the computer
Processing—performing operations on the data Output—presenting the results Storage—saving data, programs, or output for future use

9 Computer operations

10 Advantages of Using Computers
Reliability Speed Consistency Storage Communications

11 Disadvantages of Using Computers
Violation of Privacy Impact on Labor Force Health Risks Impact on Environment

12 1.2 Main Components of a Computer

13 Main components of a Computer
Hardware The physical parts of a computer Can be internal (located inside the system unit) or external (located outside of the system unit) Software Programs or instructions used to tell the computer hardware what to do Hardware Software

14 Computer Hardware Hardware used to enter data and instructions
Input device: Hardware used to enter data and instructions Refer to your textbook for more pictures and explanations for better understanding.

15 Computer hardware (cont’d)
Output device: Hardware that conveys information to one or more people Refer to your textbook for more pictures and explanations for better understanding

16 Computer components (hardware)
System unit Case containing electronic components used to process data Refer to your textbook for more pictures and explanations for better understanding

17 Computer hardware (cont’d)
Two main components on the motherboard: Processor Also called a Central Processing Unit (CPU) The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer Memory Consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions

18 Computer hardware (cont’d)
What is storage? Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Storage media Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored Storage device Records and retrieves items to and from storage media

19 Computer hardware (cont’d)
Floppy disk and USB flash drive Floppy Disk Thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in a square- shaped plastic shell Stores up to about 1.4 million characters USB Flash Drive Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip® disk Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket

20 Computer hardware (cont’d)
Hard disk Provides greater storage capacity than a floppy disk, Zip disk, or USB flash drive Most are housed inside of the system unit

21 Computer hardware (cont’d)
Compact disc Flat, round, portable metal disc CD-ROM DVD-ROM p. 9 Fig. 1-5

22 Computer hardware (cont’d)
Communications device Hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information Occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites, and other transmission media

23 Computer Software What is software?
Consists of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do Also called a program

24 Computer Software (cont’d)
What is a graphical user interface (GUI)? Allows you to interact with the software using graphics and icons Controls how you enter data and how the screen displays information

25 Computer software (cont’d)
What is system software? Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices Operating System (OS) is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware devices and allows users to run application software Utility Programs allow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs p

26 Computer software (cont’d)
Application software Programs that perform specific tasks for users Word Processing Spreadsheet Database Presentation Graphics

27 Computer software (cont’d)
JavaScript Programmer Someone who develops application or system software Programmer writes the instructions to direct the computer to process data into information Web application

28 1.3 Categories of Computers

29 Categories of Computers
What are the categories of computers? Personal Computers (desktop) Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Game Consoles Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers

30 Categories of computers (cont’d)
1. Personal Computers Designed so all of the components fit entirely on or under a desk or table Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS) PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system

31 Categories of computers (cont’d)
2. Mobile Computers Notebook computer Portable, small enough to fit on your lap Also called a laptop computer Generally more expensive than a desktop computer

32 Categories of computers (cont’d)
Tablet PC Resembles a letter-sized slate Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen useful for taking notes

33 Categories of computers (cont’d)
What are mobile devices? Small enough to carry in a pocket

34 Categories of computers (cont’d)
Mobile Device Handheld computer Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people Small enough to fit in one hand

35 Categories of computers (cont’d)
Mobile Device Personal digital assistant (PDA) Provides personal organizer functions Calendar Appointment book Address book Calculator Notepad

36 Categories of computers (cont’d)
Mobile Device A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilities Smart phones

37 Categories of computers (cont’d)
3. Game consoles Mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games

38 Categories of computers (cont’d)
4. Servers A server controls access to network resources and provides centralized storage Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of computers Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations

39 Categories of computers (cont’d)
5. Mainframes A high-performance computer used for large-scale computing purposes that require greater availability and security than a smaller-scale machine can offer

40 Categories of computers (cont’d)
6. Supercomputers The fastest type of computer Very expensive and employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculation

41 Categories of computers (cont’d)
7. Embedded computers A special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product

42 1.4 Computer History

43 Computer History The computer that we use now is a fairly recent invention The history of computers is often referred to in terms of generations, from pre-computers and early computers (before 1945) to fifth generation computers (now and the future) Each new generation is characterized by a major technological development

44 Computer History (cont’d)
The first calculating device, which was used 2000 years ago was called abacus In  1833, Prof. Charles Babbage, the father of computer, developed a machine called analytical engine which was the base for the modern digital computer Other early computing devices include the slide rule, the mechanical calculator, and Dr. Herman Hollerith’s Punch Card Tabulating Machine and Sorter

45 Computer History (cont’d)
First - Generation Computers (approximately ) The electronic digital computers, which were introduced in 1950's, were using vacuum tubes ENIAC Was developed during World War II UNIVAC Released in 1951

46 Computer History (cont’d)
Second - Generation Computers (approximately ) used transistors A small device made of semiconductor material Programming languages (FORTRAN and COBOL) were developed and implemented Computers used by military, government and big business

47 Computer History (cont’d)
Third - Generation Computers (approximately ) Introduction of integrated circuits (ICs) Also know as chips Keyboards and monitors were introduced for input and output Magnetic disks were typically used for storage Cheap, fast and reliable Used by small business

48 Computer History (cont’d)
Fourth - Generation Computers (approximately present) The invention of the microprocessor in 1971 Contains the core processing capabilities of an entire computer on one single chip Example: IBM PC and Apple Macintosh Input - keyboard and mouse Output – monitor and printer Storage – magnetic disks and optical disks The development of computer network, wireless technologies, and the internet

49 Computer History (cont’d)
Fifth - Generation Computers (now and the future) Will be based on artificial intelligence Computers can learn, think and reasoning Voice recognition Become primary means of input Optical computers Process data using light instead of electrons

50 Computer History (cont’d)

51 1.5 Computer Applications in Society

52 Computer Applications in Society
Some examples of computer applications in society: Education Finance Government Healthcare Science Publishing Travel Manufacturing

53 Review Computer definition? Computer operations?
Computer main components? Computer categories? Computer impacts on society? For more details information and pictures, please refer to your text book.

Download ppt "Information Technology Applications"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google