Presentation on theme: "Traumatic Brain Injury Definition"— Presentation transcript:
1 Traumatic Brain Injury Definition Injury to the brain (not including conditions present at birth, birth trauma, or degenerative diseases or conditions) resulting in total or partial disability or psychosocial maladjustment that affects educational performance; may affect cognition, language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem solving, sensory or perceptual and motor disabilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, information processing, or speech.
2 TBI Definition Cont.Closed – caused by a blow to the head from an auto crash, assault, fall, etc.Open – caused when an object (or fragment) goes through the skull and into the brain. Could be from an accident, assault, bullet, etc.
3 TBI Categories MildConcussion with brief (<15 minutes) or no loss of consciousness.Usually no complications, i.e. hematoma.Can have normal neurological exam.Symptoms usually improve over 1-3 months.75% of all brain injuries.
4 TBI Categories Moderate Loss of consciousness for minutes to hours.Confusion lasts for days or weeks afterwards.
5 TBI Categories SevereLoss of consciousness for days, weeks, or even longer.
6 Long Term Consequences May affect Mental ActivitiesCognitive skills, Language skills, Perceptual SkillsMay affect Physical AbilitiesMovement skills, Sensory skills, Maintenance/HealthMay affect Psychosocial AbilitiesPersonality changes, Psychological states, Relationship changes
7 TBI General Symptoms Vision changes: blurred, double Dizziness VomitingHeadacheConfusionDilated pupilsLethargyDifficulty thinkingDifficulty speakingNumbness, tinglingSlow pulse, breathingRinging in the earsSpinal fluid coming out of the earsLoss of consciousnessRespiratory FailureComa
8 Eligibility for Special Education The student had an acquired injury to the brain following a period of normal developmentInjury was caused by an external physical forceInjury caused adverse affects upon student’s educational performance
9 Eligibility for Special Education- Areas affected CognitionMemoryReasoningCommunicationProblem SolvingPhysical FunctionsPsychosocial BehaviorExecutive FunctionsSpeech & LanguageAttentionAbstract ThinkingJudgmentSensory, Perceptual and Motor AbilitiesInformation Processing
10 Research Based Practices After an 8-year follow-up the following proved to be effective in supporting students with TBIDaily RoutinePositive MomentumReduction of ErrorsEscape CommunicationAdult Communication StyleGraphic Advance OrganizersGoal-Plan-Do-Review Routine
11 Appropriate Accommodations The following strategies are essential for appropriate education of students with TBI:Transition from a hospital or rehabilitation center to the schoolA team approach involving regular and special educators, other special teachers, guidance counselor, administrators, and the student’s family.An individualized education program concerned with cognitive, social/behavioral, and sensorimotor domains.
12 Appropriate Accommodations Cont. Educational procedures to help students solve problems in focusing and sustaining attention for long periods, remembering previously learned information, learning new things and appropriate social behaviorEmphasis on the cognitive processes in which academic skills are learnedPlans for addressing long-term needs
13 Getting Back to SchoolA large problem with TBI students is getting back into schoolThe student sees themselves as having not changed, they just had an accidentReintegration with their peers and in a classroom setting can be difficult and support is neededAssessment should be done through a support team
15 TBI Misc. Information Causes (MN) #1 is falls #2 is motor vehicle crashes#3 is external force applied to head or neck#4 is Shaken Baby Syndrome
16 TBI Misc. Information Cont. 5.3 million Americans have a TBI (94,000 in MN)In the US, a TBI occurs every 15 seconds, resulting in 5000 new TBIs per day or about 2 million a year50,000 of these cases result in death, annuallyTBI is the leading cause of death and disability among children and young adults until age 44
17 TBI Misc. Information Cont. More than 50% of all motor vehicle crashes, resulting in a TBI, involve alcoholEach year 230,000 persons are hospitalized with a TBI and surviveHighest prevelance among males age 15-24Male 2X as likely to receive a TBI than females