Recovery A multi-stage process Continues for years Differs for each person
What is the Long-term Impact of a Moderate or Severe TBI in the Person’s Functioning?
Impact depends on Severity of initial injury Rate/completeness of physiological recovery Functions affected Meaning of dysfunction to the individual Resources available to aid recovery Areas of function not affected by TBI
Mild TBI Lesser levels of brain damage Brief or no loss of consciousness Often referred to as ‘concussion’
Mild injury is important to discuss Long-term impact for 15% Don’t see that TBI is cause of deficits Repeated injury leads to problem emergence-”second impact syndrome” 300,000 sports and recreational injuries CT, MRI and EEG are usually normal
Effects of mild TBI: outcomes Problems disappear on their own in about 85% of cases Compensatory skills acquired Education prevents emotional upset (“shattered sense of self”)
Effects of mild TBI: outcomes Problems are not attributed to TBI Compensatory skills are not learned Best approach is early education and information Best rehab assessment is neuropsychology
How is TBI Different (or the Same) for Those Injured as Children.
Children Brain still developing Brain more flexible than adult’s Fewer educational “building blocks” Effects may not emerge immediately Follow the child over time
How Common is TBI, and Who is the Typical Person with TBI?
Who is the typical person with TBI? 4:1 ratio, males to females 15 to 25 years of age 1.5 million brain injuries per year in US Alcohol is the leading risk factor
Adolescents and young adults: highest rate Aged: second highest
What is the Course of Treatment for Those with TBI?
Integrated System of Care Inpatient Rehabilitation Programs Coma Recovery Programs (rarely used) Extended Care Programs ( typically inappropriate) Outpatient Programs Community Support Services
Community/Post Acute Services Outpatient In clinic At home/work/community
Community/Post Acute Services Residential –neurorehabilitation/transitional living –neurobehavioral intensive –long-term supported living
Brain Injury Association of PA Biapa.org Brain Injury Resource Line 1-866-635-7097 biausa.org