2 Why…. Team(s)….??People working together can sustain the enthusiasm and lend support needed to complete the work of each program/project
3 What is a Team?Two or more individuals with a high degree of interdependence geared toward the achievement of a goal or the completion of a task.Teams make decisions, solve problems, provide support, accomplish missions, and plan their work.
4 How is a Team Different from a Group or Committee? Teams embody a collective action arising out of task interdependencyMembers of the team agree on the goalMembers agree that they must work together to achieve the goal(s)Each member is viewed as having one or more important roles to play to successfully achieve the goalThere is less hierarchy within the unit than in most work groups
5 Teamwork Theory: Stages of Group Development The Tuckman Model of Group Development
6 Forming:Members of the project team meet each other and learn about the tasks they will need to perform.Team members will try to see how they fit in with each other and understand what is expected of them.It is critical for the project manager to provide structure and direction for the team.Clearly defining the project's objectives and making sure each (institutional & individual) team member understands their role and responsibilities.
7 Storming:is characterized by interpersonal issues such as conflict & polarizationit is common for team members to challenge each other, including the project manager!Team members also question what they are doing and how it is being done.As manager, this will likely be the most challenging time leading the project. (Understand that this type of conflict is normal for any team will help you pass through this stage successfully)some of the skills that will help build your team are conflict management, active listening, and relationship building.It is also important to be assertive, confident, and positive, especially if some team members are challenging the leadership.
8 Norming:Conflicts become less intense and the team begin to understand and accept each otherGradually team starts to come together and is able to focus more effectively on the project tasks and objectives.Focus on keeping everyone moving in the right direction.Communication and constructive feedback will help keep the paceContinue team building efforts by arranging social events with the teamMake sure to give positive recognition to team members.
9 Performing:Team members are comfortable with each other and group norms have been accepted.Interpersonal and structural issues have been settled and support task performance.Team synergy is high during this stage which results in high performance.Now that the team is performing at a high level, you will be able to focus more of your energy on leadership activities and less on supervisory activities.This level of synergy amplifies the overall effectiveness of your project.
10 Adjourning:As the project comes to an end, the team moves into the Adjourning stage.At this point, the team has become very close and many of the team members will feel a sense of loss. For this reason, this stage is also known as the Mourning stage.As the project manager, it is important that you arrange for a celebration to recognize the team's accomplishments.This will close the project on a positive note. Plus, you never know when you will work with some of these same people on a future project you are leading.They'll remember the recognition and appreciation you showed them on this project.
11 In Conclusion...The Tuckman model is one of the most influential models of teamwork theory.Understanding its five stages of group development can help develop a high performing project team.
12 Why?Teamwork is important because it creates human synergy. It amplifies the results of each member of your team such that the overall result is greater than the individual contributions made by each member.
14 Effective Teamwork in Organizations Project Vision and ObjectivesClearly define and communicate project's vision and objectives to all team members. This is important for overall coordination of the project team by making sure everyone is moving in the same direction.
15 Effective Teamwork in Organizations Roles and ResponsibilitiesMake sure all project members understand what their role is and what their responsibilities are. This is important for setting expectations among all of the project stakeholders.
16 Effective Teamwork in Organizations Encourage CollaborationCreate a project environment where problem-solving and decision-making are done in a collaborative and participative manner. This is important for empowering the team and encouraging active involvement in the project.“In cooperation, partners split the work, solve sub-tasks individually and then assemble the partial results into the final output. In collaboration, partners do the work together.” Pierre Dillenbourg (1995) University of Geneva, Switzerland
17 Effective Teamwork in Organizations Build TrustCreate an environment of trust by modeling the behavior desired from team by communicating openly, supporting win/win approaches, and respecting others. This is important for showing the team that you trust them and encouraging mutual trust among each other.Taking action in these four areas will set the foundation for effective teamwork and team building. This is the basis for developing a high-performing team and a successful project.
18 Effective Teamwork in Organizations Taking action in these four areas will set the foundation for effective teamwork and team building. This is the basis for developing a high-performing team and a successful project.Project Vision and ObjectivesRoles and ResponsibilitiesEncourage CollaborationBuild Trust (rapport)
19 Collaboration Through Team Building The most effective teams arrive at decisions through consensus by following a rational process that includes:Identifying the issue.Setting a specific objective.Gathering and analyzing the facts.Developing alternatives.Evaluating the alternatives.Deciding and acting.
20 Effective Team-Building Takes Time All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.Teams often are difficult to form because it takes time for members to learn how to work together.There must be frequent and prolonged contact
21 ME versus WELet’s all remember that in team sports there is no individual who wins championships but that teams do.Even though you have a specific job function and you belong to a specific department, you are unified with other organization members to accomplish the overall objectives. The bigger picture drives your actions; your function exists to serve the bigger picture.