Presentation on theme: "Gender and Development – Practical approaches"— Presentation transcript:
1 Gender and Development – Practical approaches Gender AnalysisPresented by: Jagriti ShankarGender-KM OfficerAPMAS –Gender Sensitive Management ProjectAsian Institute of Technology
2 Overview What and Why of Gender Analysis Gender Analysis Frameworks and Tools
3 Learning Objectives After this session you should be able to: recognise the importance of gender analysis for project planning, implementation and evaluationuse tools for gender analysis as part of development interventions
4 We learned so far..Gender is a social construction depending upon time and cultureWomen’s and men’s division of labour and access and control over resources is differentThere is a global gender inequality in favour of menMen’s work = paid = considered more importantWomen’s work = unpaid= considered less importantDue to gender discrimination women do not get their fair share of opportunities and benefits
5 Can development initiatives fail because they do not consider gender ?
6 Have a look at this development intervention (source: UNDP) We have brought Food for everyone, Go get from the tree.
7 Answer these Q. based on the Picture Do you think this is Equal Opportunity for all animals?Does the same thing happens in development projects?Who will be able to get the Food?What should be done instead?
8 Implicit Assumptions of Development Programs Assumptions during Project design and implementation:Men are the head of household -> Project activities for economic benefits should focus menHousework or child care is not much efforts -> Women can handle outside work with house work, women’s priorities go unnoticedWomen do care work -> Interventions related to family health should focus womenDevelopment benefits will automatically reach women
9 What is Gender Analysis Gender analysis is a toolto better understandthe different social,economic, culturaland political realitiesof women and men, girls and boys.At its core is understanding culture (underlying values, norms and beliefs), expressed in the construction of gender identities and inequalities. (Word Fish)
10 Goals of Gender Analysis Better understand our community (women, men, girls and boys)Get better results from development programs
11 What Gender Analysis Will Provide? Analysis of the Division of Labour and Access and Control of ResourcesUnderstanding of gender relations and their Implications for development policy and implementationSpecific gender disaggregated statisticsA Review of Women’s Priorities, Women’s Practical Needs and Strategic Interest and ways to address themA Review of Social, Economic, Political Power DynamicsAbsence of GA propose high risk of program failure, less success or reinforce inequity
12 Some examplesA gender analysis of health program will inform you how inequalities disadvantage women’s health, the constraints women face, ways to overcome constraints.A gender analysis of women worker’s situations, their needs, work places, wages, market trends will provide practical information to advocate for all (women and men) worker’s rightsA gender analysis of product supply chain will tell you women’s involvement at different stages in the supply chain so to increase their visibility and gain economic benefitsA gender analysis of water project will inform you where women collect water, what should be done to increase women’s access to safe water
13 When to conduct a Gender Analysis Gender Analysis should/can be undertaken at any/all stages of a program/project cycle, including:Identification of the project;Planning or design of the activity;Implementation; andMonitoring and evaluation of program
14 Who should do gender analysis GovernmentPolicy makersDonorsProgram ManagersDevelopment StaffField workers, etc.GA should be participatory involving key stakeholders from the field where the intervention is to take placeGender Analysis can be conducted through a variety of Tools and Frameworks
15 How To Do Gender Analysis Collect Relevant Data: Sex–disaggregated information for analysis (Who does what? Gender roles, responsibilities, priorities of men and women both within and outside the household? Who has what? Who controls what?)Identify Relevant Gender Issues (women’s and men’s practical needs and strategic interests)Understand the institutional, economic, social, and political contexts (What are the differences, constraints, influences, power dynamics between women and men?)Understand the priorities and needs of both men and women affected by the project (what do they need/want?)
16 Gender Analysis Frameworks Gender roles framework (Harvard)Triple roles framework (Carolyn Moser)Web of institutionalisation framework (Caren Levy)Gender analysis matrix (GAM)Equality and empowerment framework (Sara Longwe)Capacities and vulnerabilities framework (CVA)People oriented planning framework (POP)Social relations framework (SRF)A Standardized format that guide you to do GAFrameworks are only tools, you have to decide how to confront the situationFrameworks can be combined according to particular situationsThe frameworks address different aspects of gender equality and therefore are useful in different situations. Harvard and Moser are particularly useful when analysing the division of labour in agriculture and in urban settings; Levy is useful for gender mainstreaming in institutions; GAM is useful when assessing gender differential impacts of projects at community level; Longwe is useful for assessment of empowerment of women due to interventions in all sectors; CVA deals mainly with humanitarian and disaster preparedness issues; POP is an expanded version of Harvard, dealing mainly with refugee issues; SRF is useful when dealing with sustainable development and institutional changeHarvard framework was developed at Harvard university. It is also called the Gender Roles Framework, was developed by the Harvard Institute for International Development in collaboration with the Women In Development office of USAID, and was first described in 1984 by Catherine Overholtand others. It was one of the earliest of such frameworks. The starting point for the framework was the assumption that it makes economic sense for development aid projects to allocate resources to women as well as men, which will make development more efficient – a position named the “efficiency approach"Harvard framework informs planners about the situations, roles, resources, various social, economical and political influencing factors and on the basis of this overall information, planners can design better and efficient projectsIt improves the visibility because it generates the sex dissegrated data
17 Harvard framework - 1 Can help planners design efficient projects Improves visibility of women in target areaThree main tools:Tool 1: The socio-economic activity profile –who does what, when, where and for how long?Harvard framework was developed at Harvard university. It is also called the Gender Roles Framework, was developed by the Harvard Institute for International Development in collaboration with the Women In Development office of USAID, and was first described in 1984 by Catherine Overholtand others. It was one of the earliest of such frameworks. The starting point for the framework was the assumption that it makes economic sense for development aid projects to allocate resources to women as well as men, which will make development more efficient – a position named the “efficiency approach"Harvard framework informs planners about the situations, roles, resources, various social, economical and political influencing factors and on the basis of this overall information, planners can design better and efficient projectsIt improves the visibility because it generates the sex dissegrated data
20 Harvard framework - 2 Tool 2: The access and control profile – who has access to resources (ex. land, equipment, capital etc.)?who has access to benefits (ex. education, health services, political power etc.)?who has control over resources and benefits?We analyze what resources people use to carry out the tasks identified in step 1 activity profile.Do we understand that Access and control are different. Though women can unrestrictedly use some resources but not always they can control or take decisions about changing, buying, selling of these resources.If women have access to resources that may serve women’s practical needs, but it doesn’t serve women’s strategic needs in longer term. For gender equity women and men should have equal control over resources like buying or selling of land, or other property.
21 Tool 2: Access and control profile Assets, ResourcesLandEquipmentCashEducationTrainingOtherW/MMBenefitsIncomeHealthWater User GroupPolitical powerW
22 Tool 3: Influencing factors 3. Identify factors that determine the gender differences –Political, economic, cultural etc.Communtiy norms, social hierachiesTraining and educationAttitude of community towards external development workersPast and present influencesOpportunities and constraints
23 Gender Analysis of Projects Activity ProfileWho does what?Access and Control ProfileWho has what?Analysis of Factors and TrendsSocio-Economic-Political factorsProgram Cycle AnalysisWhat gender considerations are needed in project design and implementation
24 Gender Analysis Matrix The tool uses participatory methodology to facilitate the definition and analysis of gender issues by the communities that are affected by them. Using the Gender Analysis Matrix will provide a unique articulation of issues as well as develop gender analysis capacity from the grassroots level up.All requisite knowledge for gender analysis exists among the people whose lives are the subject of the analysisGender analysis does not require the technical expertise of those outside the community being analyzed, except as facilitatorsGender analysis cannot be transformative unless the analysis is done by the people being analyzed.
25 CATEGORIES OF ANALYSIS Unit s of Analysis #1:LABORUnit s of Analysis #2:TIMEUnit s of Analysis #3Unit s of Analysis #4Levels of Analysis/ StakeholdersStakeholder #1 : MenStakeholder #2: WomenStakeholder #3: CommunityStakeholder #4
26 Sample Gender Analysis Matrix Dimensions of AnalysisLivelihood activities, roles, relationsAssets, CapabilitiesPower and Decision-makingNeeds, PrioritiesInstitutions, Mechanisms, GovernanceWOMENWhat activities they do?Where?When?What assets, capabilities, opportunities they have?What are different vulnerability?What are their different coping mechanism?What decision making do men and women participate in?What decision making they control?What constraints they face?What are women’s needs and prioritiesWhat are their aspirations for futureHow markets work differently for women and men?Do governance takes into account women’s concernsMEN-do-
27 Case study for gender analysis Source: ‘Hor Sophea, AIT’ The urban population in Cambodia collect water from a variety of sources, including piped water, public tap, well, surface water, and water sold by private vendors which is usually high cost and from unreliable sources. Though men help sometime but traditionally women collect water for household use. Most slum dwellers face drainage and sewerage problems, esp. during the rainy season. MRD installed 5 tube-wells without consultations with community or testing ground water quality. The tube well water contained high iron, lime, arsenic and could not be used for washing cloths, cooking food or bathing. After a number of health problems people stopped using water from the tube wells.