A: Is A ___ than B ? B: Yes, A is ___ than B. No, B is ___ than A. // No, A isn’t ___ than B. Jane AliceCindy Mary
Let’s make our own sentence! Is Girls Generation better than Kara? Yes, Girls Generation is better than Kara. A: Is A ____ than B ? B: Yes, A is ____ than B. No, B is ____ than A. No, A isn’t ____ than B.
Processing The Lesson What are the productive skills? What are the receptive skills? What skill was taught in this lesson? How was Ss prior knowledge assessed? What were the materials I used in this lesson? Make a list? What role did those materials play? How did they help Ss learning? How does the lesson and/or materials conform/differ from Tomlinson’s recommendations for good materials?
Materials Used in Sample Lesson 1 laminated pictures on walls White board PowerPoint Students worksheets and handouts Teacher Re-grouping at end of lesson Graphic Organizer (chart on WB) Stuffed animal
1.How many language skills are there in English? What skills can we teach using the EIF Framework? Writing and speaking 2.Please describe what EIF stands for and summarize your understanding of the framework E – EncounterInductive, student involvement I – InternalizePractice (controlled) F – FluencyPractice (hands off)
Some activities you might not Know Word Splash – put words that relate to the topic on white board in different sizes, shapes, etc. and have students make a sentence for each http://www.everydayell.com/blogs/teac hing-tips/6212980-word-splash http://www.everydayell.com/blogs/teac hing-tips/6212980-word-splash Stickies (Post-it Notes) – there are many ways to use these in class http://busyteacher.org/13620-7-simple- learning-centers-post-it-notes.html http://busyteacher.org/13620-7-simple- learning-centers-post-it-notes.html
Some activities you might not know Rods -Cuisenaire rods are generally used to teach math but can be used to teach English sentence structure, word stress, etc. http://busyteacher.org/2471-how- to-teach-english-using-cuisenaire-rods- 15.htmlhttp://busyteacher.org/2471-how- to-teach-english-using-cuisenaire-rods- 15.html Jazz chants – clapping and chanting to learn the rhythm of English http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mA YwoLZso7s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mA YwoLZso7s
Think about the following questions on your own: 1.What is a student learning objective ? 2.What do we mean by “ observable behavior ?” 3.Which of the two (below) is an aim and which is an objective? A. By the end of the lesson SWBAT ask and answer Qs using frequency adverbs (always, often, sometime, seldom, never) in the dialog (A: How often do you _____? B: I _____ ______.) by conducting a class survey of Ss daily routines. B. Students will come to appreciate and understand British culture.
Student Learning Objectives Think about the following questions on your own: 1.Why should we use a student learning objective (SLO)? 2.When should you make a SLO? 3.How do you prepare students to succeed in reaching the SLO? 4.How do you know if the SLO is too easy or too hard ?
“SMART” objectives S - specific M - measurable A - achievable R – relevant T – time bound
To make sure it ’ s a fair test, I ’ m going to give you all the same task. All I want you to do is climb up into that tree … Realistic Objective?
What is the difference between the verbs in the left and right column according to learning objectives? RankUnderstand Answer Appreciate Create Learn ListKnow Ask Use Give Identify Write Tell Categorize Describe Evaluate Paraphrase Retell
Look at the sample objectives on the next slide and answer the following questions: Which is the clearest? Which best indicates the student behavior you want to see by the end of the lesson?
1.By the end of the lesson, students will be able to (SWBAT) use Spanish to introduce themselves and their peers to each other 2.By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate the ability to greet each other by using “Hola Mi Nombre es…..” by doing a mingle activity in which students meet and greet each other in Spanish. 3.By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate the ability to understand how Spanish is used to greet someone and introduce people to each other.
What do you think of this objective? By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate an understanding of the rules for third person singular verb forms of regular and irregular verbs BY completing a fill-in-the blank worksheet. Please rephrase “completing a fill-in-the-blank worksheet” into something more meaningful and authentic, observable and measurable. Remember the goal of a speaking lesson is to have the Ss using the language productively the behavior you need at the end of the lesson involves using the TL.
Some possible changes: By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate an understanding of the rules for third person singular verb forms of regular and irregular verbs… by producing the correct form of the third person singular for regular and irregular verbs in writing - given the infinitive forms. by identifying incorrect forms of 3rd person singular regular and irregular verbs and providing the correct form. by telling the correct forms in a when describing someone’s daily activities.
A more appropriate SLO By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate an understanding of the rules for third person singular verb forms of regular and irregular verbs… BY interviewing their partner about their daily routine and then sharing what they have learned with another classmate in a double interview activity
Creating Objectives * Remember the key is to think about the language needed to complete a communicative task that students will demonstrate by the end of the lesson ; this task should be based on what the students have learned from all the activities they participated in during the lesson. It might be helpful to use the following “ formula ”: By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate (TL – functons & notions – knowledge, & skills) by ( doing something = the assessment activity) __.
Example from Sample Lesson 1 By the end of the lesson, SWBAT make statements about and ask basic questions using comparatives (i.e.: “X is taller than Y” and “Is X taller than Y?”) by conducting a class survey about famous Korean people.
SLO Formula By the end of the lesson, SWBAT ___________________________ by __________________________.
Practice Make detailed objectives for the following productive skill lessons: Vocabulary: family members (mother, uncle, etc); asking/answering Qs about family Function: giving and receiving directions; drawing the route/path on a map Grammar: simple past tense; asking answering questions about past activities
Vocabulary By the end of the lesson SWBAT describe their family using the TL (mother, father…) by describing people in a family photo album. Function By the end of the lesson SWBAT ask for and give directions using the TL (A: Excuse, me can you tell me where the ____ is? B: Yes, ….. ) by doing “Find the Treasure” information gap activity. Grammar By the end of the lesson SWBAT ask and answer Qs using a dialog in the simple past tense e.g. (A: What did you ___? B: ____ I _____.) by doing a “Conversation Grid” interview activity.
Language Analysis: What you do before you write an SLO Select the grammar/vocabulary topic Fine-tune : What is, isn’t included, other meanings, negative form, question, typical Student problems Make sentences and choose one as a representative Decide on a situational context or text to teach the grammar form Analyze the form, meaning and use Write your student learning objective (SLO)
Let’s practice together The grammar item is: Tag questions. What are some typical sentences?(5-10) What do we need to consider? E.g. Verb form, pronunciation, negative, answering What are some common student errors? Where might they have difficulty? What situations and places is the grammar usually used in?
Some sample tag questions: You like tag questions, don’t you? This isn’t a problem, is it? You didn’t kiss him, did you? You should ask you mother about it, shouldn’t you? You can go to the party, can’t you? You aren’t eating the cookies, are you? She won’t marry him, will she? You haven’t completed your homework, have you? This has helped, hasn’t it? They couldn’t come, could they?
Additional Fine-Tuning This isn’t a problem, is it ? She is pretty, isn’t she ? You aren’t eating the cookies, are you ? You’re happy, aren’t you ? You like tag questions, don’t you ? You don’t like him, do you ? You know her phone number, don’t you ? She doesn’t play tennis, does she ?
Make Your Own SLO It’s time to start thinking about your mid-term project which will be due in week 10. You will be writing a lesson plan and selecting, adapting and supplementing materials for each stage of the lesson The first step is to make your SLO and chose your target language
Your First Lesson Plan p.211 Draw an triangle on a piece of paper. What steps are there to teach someone to ride a bike? List the steps on your paper. Put the first step at the top of the triangle and the last step at the bottom First Last
Your First Lesson Plan Read through your lesson plan and label the stages E-I-F. Look at your last step: Did you give your learner a clear task to let them demonstrate their SLO? Write an SLO of this lesson plan using the formula you learned in this lesson. Did you miss any steps? Add them in. First Last
Encounter: Introduce learner to bike assess prior knowledge asks learner about parts of bike introduce key concepts and vocabulary model the task/skills for learner Internalize: controlled practice – trainer holds bike while leaner rides less controlled practice – trainer removes support gradually so learner can internalize Fluency: learner rides bike with out support from trainer learner is given a task that demonstrates his/her ability such as: Ride the bike to the store and buy two ice cream cones. Free Controlled By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate their ability to ride a bike alone BY riding the bike to the store to buy two ice cream cones.
Scaffolding SLA Definition: scaffolding explains how learning occurs as a result of “support coming from a more knowledgeable other that leads the learner to internalize what is being learned.” (Ko, Schallert and Walters (2003). Materials Development Definition scaffolding means the language support that the teacher (or material developer) builds into the productive skill lesson to facilitate the successful learning of the target language
EIF E = Encounter Students “encounter” the target language through an activity of some kind (rather than teacher “presenting” the target language) I = Internalize Students “internalize” the target language through practice (controlled practice activities free practice activities) F = Fluency Students “ USE ” the target language on their own they become fluent in using the target language
EIF framework What do you think this triangle shape represents?
EIF breakdown of triangle shape E time needed to encounter and clarify the target language/skill. I Timed needed to work on accurately remembering and internalizing the target language/skill. F Time needed to work on fluently using the target language/skill (mastery).
Sometimes the shape of this framework can look similar to a Christmas tree rather than a triangle. Why do you think this is so?
Imagine teaching “ greetings ” to your students. Would you teach them the whole dialogue at once? Why? E (encounter) I (internalize) EE II EE II FF We call this “ Language chunking ”
Typical ENCOUNTER activities brainstorming describing a picture or pictures using the people and things in the classroom learning a dialogue (choral repetition and group drilling) watch and follow a model elicitation from students of vocabulary they already know word map story telling with guiding Qs to elicit concepts, term or vocabulary reading/listening to sentences reading/listening to a passage puzzle/games that check Ss prior knowledge
Typical INTERNALIZE and FLUENCY activities pair conversations & conversation grids games information gaps interviews/surveys mixers (“cocktail party”) such as “Find Someone who…” dialogues and personalized substitution drills ( less controlled internalize practice activity only ) role plays ( usually only for fluency ) discussions & debates
Is there a difference between dialogues and role-plays? Dialogue = the script is provided and students read it. (*Substitution of language points in the dialogue is also common “dialogue” activity). Role-play = the script is not provided. Students use the language they have learned on their own in a situation provided by the teacher.
Backwards Planning SLO & Final Activity Second to last activity First practice activity Warm-Up Introduction Creates more effective lessons Saves planning time