What is speaking? n Speaking is communicating information through the spoken word.
What does speaking involve? knowing and using the following in order to convey intended meaning: n appropriate vocabulary and expressions n correct pronunciation n correct word order n body language, tone, and facial expressions n appropriate register (degree of politeness)
Quotations about Speaking n To speak and to speak well are two things. A fool may talk, but a wise man speaks. ~Ben Jonson n Two monologues do not make a dialogue. ~Jeff Daly n To be able to ask a question clearly is two-thirds of the way to getting it answered. ~John Ruskin
Task: 1 What is "Teaching Speaking"? What is meant by "teaching speaking" is to teach EFL learners to : n n ……………………………………………
n Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns n Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language. n Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter. What Is "Teaching Speaking"?
n Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence. n Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments. n Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency. (Nunan, 2003)
How To Teach Speaking n Many linguists and ESL / EFL teachers agree on that students learn to speak in the second language by "interacting". n CLT and CL serve best for this aim. CLT is based on real-life situations that require communication. By using this method in ESL/ EFL classes, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language. n CLT and CL serve best for this aim. CLT is based on real-life situations that require communication. By using this method in ESL/ EFL classes, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language.
n ESL teachers should create a classroom environment where students have real- life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. This can occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task.
Frameworks for teaching speaking n Do you know of any frameworks (models to follow for planning your lessons) that can be used for teaching speaking?
PPP or ESA? Jermey harmer proposed a different three stage model, the ESA model E= Engage n Teacher arouses the students interest in the subject or the language point. S = Study n Activities which focus on language practice with the aim of achieving subconscious language acquisition. A = Activate n The exercises and the activities which are designed to get students to use the language as communicatively as they can.
Pair work n What are the steps you have to go through to teach someone to ride a bike? Discuss with your partner and come up with a list of steps. Discuss with your partner and come up with a list of steps.
Controlled Controlled n Encounter: n Introduce learner to bike n assess prior knowledge asks learner about parts of bike n introduce key concepts n model the task/skills for learner n Internalization: n controlled practice – trainer holds bike while leaner rides n less controlled practice – trainer removes support gradually so learner can internalize n Fluency: n learner rides bike with out support from trainer n learner is given a task that demonstrates his/her ability such as: Ride the bike to the store and buy two ice cream cones. Free
EIF E = Encounter Students encounter the target language through an activity of some kind (rather than teacher presenting the target language) I = Internalization Students internalization the target language through practice (controlled practice activities free practice activities) F = Fluency Students USE the target language on their own they become fluent in using the target language
EIF breakdown of triangle shape n E time needed to encounter and clarify the target language/skill. n I Timed needed to work on accurately remembering and internalizing the target language/skill. n F Time needed to work on fluently using the target language/skill (mastery).
n Sometimes the shape of this framework can look similar to a tree rather than a triangle. n Why do you think this is so?
Imagine teaching greetings to your students. Would you teach them the whole dialogue at once? Why? n E (encounter) n I (internalize) nEnEnEnE nInInInI nEnEnEnE nInInInI nFnFnFnF n We call this Language chunking
Lesson Staging in EIF n In the INTERNALIZATION stage of a productive skill lesson, activities should be scaffolded and staged step-by-step from: n CONTROLLED practice FREE practice n focus on ACCURACY build towards FLUENCY n So, by the end of the INTERNALIZATION stage, students will be able to move onto the FLUENCY stage and be able to USE the language freely on their own (mastery of TL).
List the activities that promote speaking. 1-……………………………… 2-…………………………….. 3-…………………………….. 4-…………………………….. 5-…………………………….. 6-……………………………. 7-…………………………….. 8-…………………………….. 9-…………………………….. 10-…………………………… 11-…………………………… 12-……………………………
Typical ENCOUNTER activities n brainstorming n describing a picture or pictures n using the people and things in the classroom n learning a dialogue n watch and follow a model n elicitation from students of vocabulary they already know n word map n story telling
Typical INTERNALIZATION and FLUENCY activities All levels: n pair conversations n games n information gaps n interviews/surveys n mixers (cocktail party) n dialogues (internalize activity only) n role plays (usually only for fluency) n discussions
What is the difference betweenInternalization and Fluency activities? n Internalization = target language (language points, grammar, vocabulary, etc) are provided for students so they can practice the language and the focus is on accuracy. n Fluency = target language is no longer provided for students so that they are using the language on their own and the focus is on fluency (mastery of TL).
Task 3: There are a variety of ways to help students to speak and communicate in English both fluently and accurately. In order to achieve this, you have to………………….. n n ………………………………………………………
Answer: n n help students to use and apply correct rules for pronunciation, intonation and word order. n n encourage students to share ideas in conversation in order to enhance language learning. n n help students to acquire the implicit rules in conversation, such as turn-taking, listening to others when they speak and speaking clearly at a reasonable speed. n n elicit the language from students that they will need in a speaking activity.
Discussions n After a content-based lesson, a discussion can be held for various reasons. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about an event, or find solutions in their discussion groups. Before the discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is set by the teacher.
Role Play n One other way of getting students to speak is role-playing. Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have a variety of social roles. In role-play activities, the teacher gives information to the learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. Thus, the teacher can tell the student that "You are David, you go to the doctor and tell him what happened last night, and…" (Harmer, 1984)
Simulations n Simulations are very similar to role- plays but what makes simulations different than role plays is that they are more elaborate. In simulations, students can bring items to the class to create a realistic environment. For instance, if a student is acting as a singer, she brings a microphone to sing and so on
Information Gap n In this activity, students are supposed to be working in pairs. One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information. Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information. n In this activity, students are supposed to be working in pairs. One student will have the information that other partner does not have and the partners will share their information. Information gap activities serve many purposes such as solving a problem or collecting information.
Brainstorming n On a given topic, students can produce ideas in a limited time. Depending on the context, either individual or group brainstorming is effective and learners generate ideas quickly and freely. The good characteristics of brainstorming is that the students are not criticized for their ideas so students will be open to sharing new ideas.
Storytelling n Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell their classmates. Story telling fosters creative thinking. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including the characters and setting a story has to have.
Interviews n Students can conduct interviews on selected topics with various people. It is a good idea that the teacher provides a rubric to students so that they know what type of questions they can ask or what path to follow, but students should prepare their own interview questions.
Story Completion n This is a very enjoyable, whole-class, free- speaking activity for which students sit in a circle. For this activity, a teacher starts to tell a story, but after a few sentences he or she stops narrating. Then, each student starts to narrate from the point where the previous one stopped. Each student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences. Students can add new characters, events, descriptions and so on.
Picture Narrating n This activity is based on several sequential pictures. Students are asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential pictures by paying attention to the criteria provided by the teacher as a rubric. Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures they need to use while narrating.
Picture Describing n Another way to make use of pictures in a speaking activity is to give students just one picture and having them describe what it is in the picture. For this activity students can form groups and each group is given a different picture. Students discuss the picture with their groups, then a spokesperson for each group describes the picture to the whole class. This activity fosters the creativity and imagination of the learners as well as their public speaking skills.
Find the Difference n For this activity students can work in pairs and each couple is given two different pictures, for example, picture of boys playing football and another picture of girls playing tennis. Students in pairs discuss the similarities and/or differences in the pictures.
Task:4 Examine the activity from Over To You 11,SB p.19 Exercise 6 Work with a partner: n n a-Take turns to describe a family celebration you remember well. Think about: -the place -the people -food and drink -people's clothes n n b-Do you think it is important for the family members to meet on important occasions? Give reasons. Divide the instructions from the Teacher's Guide, p.41, into pre- speaking, while-speaking and post-speaking.
Suggestions For Teachers in Teaching Speaking n Here are some suggestions for English language teachers while teaching oral language: Provide maximum opportunity to students to speak the target language by providing a rich environment that contains collaborative work, authentic materials and tasks, and shared knowledge. n Try to involve each student in every speaking activity; for this aim, practice different ways of student participation. n Reduce teacher speaking time in class while increasing student speaking time. Step back and observe students.
n Do not correct students' pronunciation mistakes very often while they are speaking. Correction should not distract student from his or her speech. n Involve speaking activities not only in class but also out of class; contact parents and other people who can help. n Circulate around classroom to ensure that students are on the right track and see whether they need your help while they work in groups or pairs.
n Provide the vocabulary beforehand that students need in speaking activities. n Diagnose problems faced by students who have difficulty in expressing themselves in the target language and provide more opportunities to practice the spoken language. n Indicate positive signs when commenting on a student's response. n Ask eliciting questions such as "What do you mean? How did you reach that conclusion?" in order to prompt students to speak more.
n Provide written feedback like "Your presentation was really great. It was a good job. I really appreciated your efforts in preparing the materials and efficient use of your voice…
Conclusion n Teaching speaking is a very important part of second language learning. The ability to communicate in a second language clearly and efficiently contributes to the success of the learner in school and success later in every phase of life. Therefore, it is essential that language teachers pay great attention to teaching speaking. Rather than leading students to pure memorization, providing a rich environment where meaningful communication takes place is desired.