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TESOL Materials Design and Development

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1 TESOL Materials Design and Development
Week 4 Assessing Learner Differences, SLOs, Sample Lesson 1 Walk Thru

2 Warm-up & Opportunity for outcome feedback:
Think about the following Qs: What is enhanced input and how does it help draw Ss attn to significant features of the TL? What is schema activation and why do we do it? What kinds of activities provide Ss with a communicative purpose? How do children, adolescents and adult learners differ from each other? Is attention span only a problem in young learners? Why or why not?

3 Motivation What is “motivation”?
“Some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something” (Harmer, 2001) What are the two kinds of motivation? Intrinsic and extrinsic What are some examples of each?

4 Reward Systems

5 Discussion Questions Is it important to motivate our students?
How can we keep our students motivated to learn?

6 Society and culture’s effect on Ss motivation What the T and classroom can do to motivate Ss Ss intrinsic & extrinsic motivation Family and friends effect on Ss motivation

7 Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI)
Introduced by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner in 1983. Suggested that as humans we do not possess a single intelligence, but a range. He listed seven intelligences (and added an eighth one in 1999). All people have these intelligences but in each person one (or more) of them is more pronounced.

8 Most people can develop each intelligence to an adequate level of competency.
Gardner suggests that virtually everyone has the capacity to develop all seven intelligences to a reasonably high level of performance if given the appropriate encouragement, enrichment, and instruction. Intelligences usually work together in complex ways - Gardner points out that the intelligences are always interacting with each other.

9 There are many ways to be intelligent within each category - there is no standard set of attributes that one must have to be considered intelligent in a specific area. Consequently, a person may not be able to read, yet be highly linguistic because he can tell a terrific story or has a large, oral vocabulary. Similarly, a person may be quite awkward on the playing field, yet possess superior bodily-kinesthetic intelligence when she weaves a carpet or creates an inlaid chess table.

10 The Intelligences Linguistic Learner Logical/Mathematical Learner
Spatial Learner Musical Learner Kinesthetic Learner Interpersonal Learner Intrapersonal Learner Naturalist Learner

Linguistic Learner (“word player”) Read, write, tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates, problem solving Saying, hearing, and seeing words Logical/Mathematical Learner (“questioner”) Do experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask questions Math, reasoning, logic and problem solving Categorizing, classifying, working with abstract patterns Spatial Learner (“visualizer”) Draw, build, design & create things, look at pictures, daydream, watch movies, play with machines Imagining things, sensing changes, mazes/puzzles, reading maps, charts Visualizing, dreaming, working with colours and pictures Musical Learner (“music lover”) Sing, hum, listen to music, play an instrument, respond to music Picking up sounds, remembering melodies, noticing pitches/rhythms, keeping time Rhythm, melody, music Bodily/Kinesthetic Learner Move around, touch and talk, use body language Physical activities (sport, dancing, acting) Touching, moving, interacting with space, body sensations Interpersonal Learner (“socializer”) Have lots of friends, talk to people, join groups Understanding people, leading others, organizing, communicating, mediating Sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating, interviewing Intrapersonal Learner Work alone, pursue own interests Understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams, following instincts, pursuing interests/goals, being original Working alone, individual projects, self-paced instructions, having own space

12 Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP)
What does the acronym: VAKOG mean? V = visual A = auditory K = kinesthetic O = olfactory G = gustatory T = Tactile is missing

13 Sensatory Learning Modalities
This theory states that although we use all of these systems to experience the world, we tend to have one “preferred primary system”. V = visual A = auditory K = kinesthetic T = tactile When selecting and developing materials we need to balance these modalities so all our learners are accomodated

14 Discussion Questions:
Is it important for teachers to know what kind of intelligences their students have? We can find out our students levels by looking at their scores on different tests. How can we find out what kind of learners our students are?

Where does your true intelligence lie? This quiz will tell you where you stand and what to do about it. Read each statement. If it expresses some characteristic of yours and sounds true for the most part, jot down a "T." If it doesn't, mark an "F." If the statement is sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank.

16 1. _____ I'd rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions.
2. _____ I can play (or used to play) a musical instrument. 3. _____ I can associate music with my moods. 4. _____ I can add or multiply in my head. 5. _____ I like to work with calculators and computers. 6. _____ I pick up new dance steps fast. 7. _____ It's easy for me to say what I think in an argument or debate. 8. _____ I enjoy a good lecture, speech or sermon. 9. _____ I always know north from south no matter where I am. 10. _____ Life seems empty without music. 11. _____ I always understand the directions that come with new gadgets or appliances. 12. _____ I like to work puzzles and play games. 13. _____ Learning to ride a bike (or skates) was easy. 14. _____ I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical. 15. _____ My sense of balance and coordination is good.

17 16. _____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers
16. _____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others. 17. _____ I enjoy building models (or sculpting). 18. _____ I'm good at finding the fine points of word meanings. 19. _____ I can look at an object one way and see it sideways or backwards just as easily. 20. _____ I often connect a piece of music with some event in my life. 21. _____ I like to work with numbers and figures. 22. _____ Just looking at shapes of buildings and structures is pleasurable to me. 23. _____ I like to hum, whistle and sing in the shower or when I'm alone. 24. _____ I'm good at athletics. 25. _____ I'd like to study the structure and logic of languages. 26. _____ I'm usually aware of the expression on my face. 27. _____ I'm sensitive to the expressions on other people's faces. 28. _____ I stay "in touch" with my moods. I have no trouble identifying them. 29. _____ I am sensitive to the moods of others. 30. _____ I have a good sense of what others think of me.

Count each item you marked as "true." Add your totals for each category. A total of four in any of the categories A through E indicates strong ability. In categories F and G a score of one or more means you have abilities as well. A. Linguistic = 7, 8, 14, 18, 25 B. Logical-Mathematical = 4, 5, 12, 16, 21 C. Musical = 2, 3, 10, 20, 23 D. Spatial = 1, 9, 11, 19, 22 E. Bodily-Kinesthetic = 6, 13, 15, 17, 24 F. Intra-personal = 26, 28 G. Inter-personal = 27, 29, 30               

19 The Lead VAK Test: Read and Imagine
Follow each instruction in your mind and give yourself a mark: 0=impossible 1=difficult 2=okay 3=easy SEE a kangaroo SEE your front door SEE your toothbrush SEE a friend’s face SEE a plate of food SEE a TV show… WATCH the TV scene change HEAR a song HEAR rain HEAR a fire alarm HEAR a friend’s voice HEAR your own voice HEAR birds singing… HEAR the birdsong change to a call of alarm FEEL excited FEEL yourself swimming FEEL grass under your feet FEEL a cat on your lap FEEL hot FEEL your fingers on a piano keyboard FEEL your fingers playing a few notes

20 Add up your scores for each sense: SEE ____ HEAR ____ FEEL ____
Does the highest score correspond with what you think your preferred lead system is? How did you do when it came to changing the scenes slightly in the last one of each section? “The Lead VAKT Test” from In your Hands by J Revell and S Norman (Saffire Press)

21 Student Learning Objectives SLOs
What is the difference between statements of aims and statement of objectives? What are three benefits of writing statement of objectives from the student perspective? What type of verbs do we use? Why? What is the relationship between an SLO and a Lesson Plan?

22 An aims or an objectives
Ss will come to appreciate the French language and culture By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate the ability to ask and answer Qs using (A: What did you used to do ____? B: I used to _____ ______) By doing a mingle activity. Cover pages in the textbook.

23 Action Verbs for Student Behavior

24 SLO and Lesson Plan Starting Point Destination: Achievement of SLO

25 Creates more effective lessons
Backwards Planning Second to last activity First practice activity SLO & Final Activity Warm-Up Introduction Creates more effective lessons Saves planning time

26 Lesson Plan Template: Cover Page
Three significant sections: What are you teaching? Student Learning Objective Preliminary Considerations

27 BIG “C” Culture & LITTLE “C” culture

28 Culture often Determines Appropriateness
장모님 먹자! Me BoA’s First B-day

29 Online Discussion: Suggested Topic
Come up with an activity for each learning style (VAKT) for some language topic that you choose. Share those activities by posting them on our discussion forum Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Tactile Read and reply to at least two other participants postings

30 Homework Post your weekly entry to the discussion board and reply to at least two other participants’ entries. Read EIF Frameworks and answer Qs – Remember I don’t accept late homework, but I do accept homework early. Keep up. Don’t fall behind.

31 TESOL Materials Design and Development
Week 5 Sample Lesson 1 Walk Thru Continued, Processing

32 Warm-up & Opportunity for outcome feedback:
Think about the following Qs: What is motivation? Give an example of intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. What influences motivation? What is VAKOG and what is VAKT? How are they used in material design and lesson planning? Why is assessing leaner differences important? How can we assess learner differences? If we say that we are going to teach culture in a language lesson, what aspect of culture are we going to teach? Can you give an example?

33 Preliminary Considerations
What they know What they don’t know How can you help

34 Lesson Plan Columns There are six columns in our lesson plan template
3.Time 1. Steps 5. Interaction Steps Stage Time Procedures/StepsThese need to be written in the perspective what the students do Interaction Activity Purpose/Rationale 2. Stage 4. Procedure 6. Purpose

35 Sample Lesson #1 Please pretend that you are second grade, low-intermediate/intermediate level middle school students. As you participate in this lesson, please try to take mental note of: the different features of materials that are used in the lesson. how it illustrates the basic principles of lesson planning.

36 Let’s Talk about People
Sample Lesson 1 Let’s Talk about People



39 As we do the walk thru: Please look at the materials in your course packet
Lesson Plan Name cards Picture of nameless people Who is who sentences Form Check Survey

40 A is ___ than B . Alice Cindy Jane Mary

41 No, B is ___ than A . // No, A isn’t ___ than B .
A: Is A ___ than B ? B: Yes, A is ___ than B . No, B is ___ than A . // No, A isn’t ___ than B . Jane Alice Cindy Mary

42 tall, happy, intelligent, pretty, old, interesting, beautiful, cute, big, young
-y+ier more

43 Is Bi better than SG Wanna Be?
No, Bi isn’t better than SG Wanna Be. A: Is A ____ than B ? B: Yes, A is ____ than B . No, B is ____ than A . No, A isn’t ____ than B .


45 Processing The Lesson What are the productive skills?
What are the receptive skills? What skill was taught in this lesson? What was the Student Learning Objective (SLO)?

46 Processing the Lesson Open your packet to the cover page of the comparative 1 lesson. Compare your SLO: Is it the same or different? How is it different? What were the materials I used in this lesson? Make a list? What role did those materials play? How did they help Ss learning? How does the lesson and/or materials conform/differ from Tomlinson’s recommendations for good materials?

47 Materials Used in Sample Lesson 1
laminated pictures on walls additional pictures on desk White board PowerPoint Students The monkey worksheets and handouts Teacher Re-grouping at end of lesson Graphic Organizer (chart on WB)

48 Features of Good Materials in Lesson 1
1. Impact 2. Puts Ss at ease 3. Develops confidence 4. Relevant and useful because Ss talk about famous people they care about 5. Self-Investment & discovery (puzzle game) 8. Communicative purpose (survey) 11. Learning styles (visual and kinesthetic learners accommodated) 13. Silent period 15. Not too much controlled practice 16. Outcome feedback

49 Reviewing the Reading & Processing the Lesson
Productive Skill lessons use the following framework: EIF Encounter Internalize Fluency What do you think happens in each of those stages?

50 Encounter Stage Typically five things happen in the encounter stage
1. Activate schema and set context of use 2. Assess Ss prior knowledge to ascertain Ss level 3. Generate interest and create motivation for the lesson 4. Build rapport and create a safe learning environment 5. Introduce the topic, theme or target language

51 Sometime it looks like a Squid!
Encounter Internalize Encounter Internalize Fluency

52 Internalization Stage Moves From Accuracy to Fluency
Controlled Practice Accuracy Free Practice Fluency

53 Fluency = Assessment Just like the father teaching
his son to ride a bike, the teacher needs to let go of the bike if his or her students are going to be successful.

54 Processing the Lesson Look at the lesson plan and identify the stages (E-I-F) in the comparatives 1 lesson plan. Use the following notations: E E/I I F

55 Student Learning Objectives
Think about the following questions on your own: What is a student learning objective? What do we mean by “observable behavior?” Why should we use an student learning objective (SLO)? When should you make a SLO? What do you need to think about when you create an SLO? Who needs to know the SLO? How do you prepare students to succeed in reaching the SLO? How do you know if the SLO is too easy or too hard?

56 Realistic Objective? To make sure it’s a fair test, I’m going to give you all the same task. All I want you to do is climb up into that tree…

57 What is the difference between the verbs in the left column and the verbs in the right column according to learning objectives? Rank Understand Answer Appreciate Create Learn List Know Ask Use Give Identify Write Tell Categorize Describe Evaluate Paraphrase Retell

58 “SMART” objectives S - specific M - measurable A - achievable
R – relevant T – time bound


60 Week 6

61 Look at the sample objectives on the next slide and answer the following questions:
Which is the clearest? Which best indicates the student behavior you want to see by the end of the lesson?

62 By the end of the lesson, students will be able to (SWBAT) use Spanish to introduce themselves and their peers to each other By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate the ability to greet each other by using “Hola Mi Nombre es…..” by doing a mingle activity in which students meet and greet each other in Spanish. By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate the ability to understand how Spanish is used to greet someone and introduce people to each other.

63 What do you think of this objective?
By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate an understanding of the rules for third person singular verb forms of regular and irregular verbs BY completing a fill-in-the blank worksheet. Please rephrase “completing a fill-in-the-blank worksheet” into something more meaningful and authentic as well as observable and measurable. Remember the goal of a speaking lesson is to have the Ss using the language productively; therefore; the behavior you need at the end of the lesson involves using the TL.

64 Compare your ideas with these possible changes:
By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate an understanding of the rules for third person singular verb forms of regular and irregular verbs… by producing the correct form of the third person singular for regular and irregular verbs in writing - given the infinitive forms. by identifying incorrect forms of 3rd person singular regular and irregular verbs and providing the correct form. by producing the correct forms in a written description of someone’s daily activities.

65 A more appropriate SLO By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate an understanding of the rules for third person singular verb forms of regular and irregular verbs… BY interviewing their partner about their daily routine and then sharing what they have learned with another classmate in a double interview activity

66 Creating Objectives * Remember the key is to think about the language needed to complete a communicative task that students will demonstrate by the end of the lesson; this task should be based on what the students have learned from all the activities they participated in during the lesson. It might be helpful to use the following “formula”: By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate (TL – functons & notions – knowledge, & skills) by (doing something = the assessment activity)__.

67 SLO Formula By the end of the lesson, SWBAT ___________________________ by _________________________________________.

68 Practice Make detailed objectives for the following productive skill lessons: Vocabulary: family members (mother, uncle, etc); asking/answering Qs about family photos Function: giving and receiving directions; drawing the route/path on a map Grammar: simple past tense; asking answering questions about past activities

69 Vocabulary Function Grammar
By the end of the lesson SWBAT describe their family using the TL (mother, father…) by describing people in a family photo album. Function By the end of the lesson SWBAT ask for and give directions using the TL (A: Excuse, me can you tell me where the ____ is? B: Yes, ….. ) by doing “Find the Treasure” information gap activity. Grammar By the end of the lesson SWBAT ask and answer Qs using the simple past tense e.g. (A: What did you ___? B: ____ I _____.) by doing “Conversation Grid” interview activity.

70 Language Analysis: What you do before you write an SLO
Here is a condensed form of Scrivener’s steps (P. 206) Are there any you want to add/remove? Select the grammar topic, Fine-tune: What is, isn’t included, other meanings, negative form, question, typical Ss problems Make sentences and choose one as a representative, Decide on a situational context or text to teach the grammar form Analyse the form, meaning and use Write your student learning objective (SLO)

71 Let’s practice together
The grammar item is: Tag questions. What are some typical sentences?(5-10) What do we need to consider? E.g. Verb form, pronunciation, negative, answering What are some common Ss errors? Where might they have difficulty? What situations and places is the grammar usually used in?

72 Tag Questions Continued
What is our ‘representative sentence?’ What are some ‘concept check questions?’ (Some of these should relate to the Ss common errors) What is our ‘main aim’? How do we need to modify this to produce an SLO?

73 “SMART” objectives S - specific M - measureable A - achieveable
R – relevant T – time bound

74 Creating Objectives * Remember the key is to think about the language needed to complete a communicative task that students will demonstrate by the end of the lesson; this task should be based on what the students have learned from all the activities they participated in during the lesson. It might be helpful to use the following “formula”: By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate (TL – functons & notions – knowledge, & skills) by (doing something = the assessment activity)__.

75 Make Your Own SLO It’s time to start thinking about your mid-term project which will be due in week 10. You will be writing a lesson plan and selecting, adapting and supplementing materials for each stage of the lesson The first step is to make your SLO Choose TL and include your SLO with your weekly posting to the discussion forum

76 Homework Read EIF Frameworks and answer questions to turn in online
Post an entry on the discussion forum and reply to at least two other postings

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