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Gerunds Infinitives Participles

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1 Gerunds Infinitives Participles
Verbals Gerunds Infinitives Participles

2 Gerunds Any idea what these are?

3 A Gerund is a verbal that ends in “ing” and functions as a noun.
Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.) Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate singing. (The gerund is singing.) Gerund as subject complement: My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.) Gerund as object of preposition: The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)

4 A Gerund Phrase is a group of words beginning with a gerund and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases. The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence. Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do. Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action) in a haystack (prepositional phrase) The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the sentence. My teacher likes questioning us on our math skills. questioning (gerund) us (direct object of action) On our math skills (prepositional phrase)

5 Gerund Punctuation A gerund virtually never requires any punctuation with it. An exception would be: a gerund set off by commas because it is an appositive, not because it is a gerund. Ex: My favorite sport, running track, is great exercise.

6 Points to Remember: *A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun. *A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). *Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation.

7 Diagramming Gerunds (for FUN!)
Running is fun. running = subject is = verb fun = Subject Compliment

8 Infinitives Do NOT confuse an infinitive with a preposition!
A preposition is a Prep + a Noun  to the store. An infinitive is To + a Verb  to shop.

9 An Infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “to” plus a verb form and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. To always wait seemed foolish when action was required. (subject) & (notice the infinitive was broken by an ADV but is STILL an infinitive!?) Everyone wanted to go. (direct object) His ambition is to fly. (subject complement) He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective modifying strength) We must study to learn. (adverb modifying must study)

10 Infinitives vs. Prepositional Phrases
Be sure not to confuse an infinitive—a verbal consisting of “to” plus a verb form—with a prepositional phrase beginning with “to”, which consists of “to” plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers. Infinitives: to fly, to draw, to become, to enter, to stand, to catch, to belong Prepositional Phrases: to him, to the committee, to my house, to the mountains, to us, to this address

11 An Infinitive Phrase is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and followed most often by modifiers, direct objects, and/or prepositional phrases. We intended to leave early. The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb intended. to leave (infinitive) early (adverb) I have a paper to write before class. The infinitive phrase functions as an adjective modifying paper. to write (infinitive) before class (prepositional phrase) Phil agreed to give me a ride. The infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb agreed. to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of the infinitive) a ride (direct object of the infinitive)

12 Infinitive Punctuation
If the infinitive is used as an adverb and is the beginning phrase in a sentence, it should be set off with a comma; otherwise, no punctuation is needed for an infinitive phrase, unless it is used as an appositive that is non-essential. To buy a basket of flowers, John had to spend his last dollar. To improve your writing, you must consider your purpose and audience. See how the above two are to + a verb? However, the infinitive phrase goes all the way to the comma?

13 Points to Remember: *An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word “to” plus a verb; it may be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. *An infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive plus modifier(s), object(s), complement(s) and/or prepositional phrases. *An infinitive phrase requires a comma only if it is used as an adverb at the beginning of a sentence (and sometimes as no-essential appositives).

14 Split Infinitives Split infinitives occur when additional words are included between “to” and the verb form in an infinitive. This practice should be avoided in formal writing. Examples: I like to on a nice day walk in the woods. * (unacceptable) On a nice day, I like to walk in the woods. (revised) I needed to quickly gather my personal possessions. (unacceptable) I needed to gather my personal possessions quickly. (revised)

15 Diagramming Infinitives
Infinitive as subject Infinitive as adjective Infinitive as adverb

16 Participles Want to take a stab at what these might be?

17 A Participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -“ing” or -“ed” (from the present & past participle form of the verb). The crying baby had a wet diaper. Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car. The burning log fell off the fire. Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.

18 A Participle Phrase is a group of words consisting of a participle and modifier(s) and/or direct object(s), indirect object(s), and/or prepositional phrases. Removing his coat, Jack rushed to the river. The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack. Removing (participle) his coat (direct object) Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline. The participle phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin. walking (participle) along the shoreline (prepositional phrase as adverb)

19 Types of Participles There are two kinds of participles: present participles and past participles. Present participles end in -ing Ex. leaping, blazing, withering Past participles end in: -ed, -t, or –en Ex. Pumped, burnt, broken

Participles ARE NOT preceded by helping verbs. Ex. The sputtering sedan wrenched down the boulevard. (participle) The sedan was sputtering down the boulevard. (verb)

21 The sliding cat crashed into the cans.

22 The girl, eating the chocolate buttery croissant, got a stomach ache.
My tummy hurts!

23 Dangling Participles In order to prevent confusion, a participle phrase must be placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated. Carrying a heavy pile of books, his foot caught on a step. * In this sentence there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in the participle “carrying.” Carrying a heavy pile of books, he caught his foot on a step. (revised) You can now see who is “carrying.”

24 Participle Punctuation
When a participle phrase begins a sentence, a comma should be placed after the phrase. Arriving at the store, I found that it was closed. If the participle or participle phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Sid, watching an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep. The girl swimming in the pool is my friend. If a participle phrase comes at the end and directly follows the word it modifies, you should not use a comma. The local residents often saw Ken wandering through the streets.

25 Points to Remember A participle is a verbal ending in -ing or -ed, -en, -d, -t, or -n that functions as an adjective, modifying a noun or pronoun. A participle phrase consists of a participle plus modifier(s), object(s),prepositional pharases, and/or complement(s). Participles and participle phrases must be placed as close to the nouns or pronouns they modify as possible, and those nouns or pronouns must be clearly stated. A participle phrase is set off with commas when it: a) comes at the beginning of a sentence b) interrupts a sentence as a nonessential element

26 Diagramming Participles
vase is valuable The broken vase is valuable. the ken bro

27 Knowledge Check TIME. Aren’t you glad you were paying attention
Knowledge Check TIME! Aren’t you glad you were paying attention?! In your notes, write down the gerund from each sentence. The next slide will provide the correct answers. Check yours right or wrong but leave in your notebook. Daniel started doing his homework at 12:30 PM. He apologized for being late. He insisted on speaking to the manager because there was a fly in his soup. She made plans for leaving home to go to Fiji.

28 Answers! Cross your fingers!
Doing Being Speaking Leaving - object of preposition Life would be empty without Gerunds

29 Find the Infinitive To succeed requires determination.
In your notes, label 1-5 and write the infinitive of each sentence below. Then, write if it is acting as a noun, an adverb, or an adjective. After, check your answers on the next slide plus discuss your with your class. To succeed requires determination. Judaism is the way to go. Students need to always learn. I’ll help you to study. I am going to see a movie.

30 Answer Key To succeed - noun To go - adjective To learn – adverb
To study - adjective To See - adverb

31 Across 1. My sister, eating her breakfast, talked with her mouth full. 5. The running boy tripped and fell. Down 2. The talking girl would not stop talking. 3. Flying cats ruled the ancient city. 4. Harry, the jumping bunny, jumped all the way home! Find the participles in the sentences and fill them in the correct blanks

32 1. Eating 5. Running 2. Talking 3. Flying 4. Jumping Answer Key ACROSS

33 Gerunds, Infinitives, & Participles
Verbals: Gerunds, Infinitives, & Participles ONLINE PRACTICE!

34 Additional Practice In your WriteSource text book, let’s open to pages to read the information and then complete the questions. Then, you’ll be ASSIGNED “Verbals: Practice Worksheet 1” to complete as homework due tomorrow!

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