Presentation on theme: "When the parts of the endocrine system shut down…"— Presentation transcript:
1 When the parts of the endocrine system shut down…
2 Remember that the endocrine system regulates… * body energy levels* reproduction* growth and development* internal balance of body systems, called homeostasis* responses to surroundings, stress and injury
3 DisordersEndocrine system diseases and disorders happen when one or more of the endocrine systems in your body are not working well.These irregularities are also called a hormone imbalance.not be enough receptors, or binding sites,regulating the hormones in the blood stream,the body may have difficulty controlling hormone levels because of problems clearing hormones from the blood
4 Diabetes Too much sugar (glucose) in the blood stream occurs when the pancreas does not produce the hormone insulinInsulin is necessary in carrying the sugar to the cells for cellular respirationIf insulin is not present, sugar not converted into energy, thus metabolism cannot occuSymptoms of diabetes include fatigue, weight loss, blurred vision, excessive thirst, and excessive urination.
5 Growth disordersGrowth and development controlled by the pituitary glandGrowth Hormone (somatotropin) is release by the pituitary and controlled by the hypothalmusBones, muscles, and other tissues are affected by GHIn children: stimulates linear growth, or heightdevelopment of muscle and bonedistribution of body fat throughout the bodyIn adults: affects energy, muscle strength, bone health, and psychological well being
6 Growth disorders continued… too much GH = acromegaly (adults)caused by a non-cancerous pituitary gland tumor of the pituitary glandtoo much GH in children causes gigantism.Raregrowth hormone deficiency (GHD)A child can be born with GHD.The condition also may arise because of damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a child or adult because of a tumor, an infection, or radiation to the brain — usually for the treatment of a tumor.A deficiency in GH may also have an undefined cause.
7 growth hormone deficiency (GHD) Childrengrow less than two inches per yearhave extra fat in the abdomen and faceblood sugar levels also may be lowmay experience emotional distress
8 Adults acquired the deficiency after reaching maturity Increased body fat (particularly at the waist and in the face)Decreased muscle and bone massThinning skin with fine wrinklesPoor sweating or impaired temperature regulationReduced strength and enduranceLow energy levelDecreased well-being (moodiness, mild depression)Loss of interest in sexPoor sleepHigher cholesterol levels, especially LDL (“bad”) cholesterolOverproduction of insulin
9 Reproductive Menopause - the ability to become pregnant ceases May take 10 years to completeAverage age range 47-55Estrogen levels drop, egg release haltsMay be caused earlier due toRemoval of ovariesRadiation/chemotherapyGland disordersSevere illness
10 Osteoperosisa progressive condition in which bones become structurally weak and are more likely to fracture or breakBones in the hip, spine, and wrist are especially prone to fragility fracturesHormones that affect bone loss:Estrogen= protects boneLoss of testosteroneexcess cortisol = produced in the adrenal glandtoo much of the hormone prolactinhigh doses of thyroid hormone also have a higher risk.
11 pituitary gland pituitary tumors can interfere with the normal formation and release of hormones.Two types of tumors exist - secretory and non-secretoryHypersecretion = too much hormone secretedHyposecretion = too little hormone secretedTumor mass effects = tumor presses against pituitary glandHeadaches, hyposecretion related problemsCaused by major head trauma or medications
12 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PCOS Ovaries produce small amounts of androgens to control egg releasePCOS = too much of any type of androgen is producedCysts (follicles), contain eggs and build up in the ovariesleading cause of infertilityis likely that it is a genetic disorder
13 Thyroid DisordersThyroid hormones regulate how the body breaks down food and either uses that energy immediately or stores it for the futureThyroid hormones influence virtually every organ system in the body.also regulate the consumption of oxygen and the production of heat
14 HyperthyroidismToo much thyroid hormone from an overactive thyroid glandspeeds up the body's metabolism1% of women get it, more common in women than men
15 Affects women between 20-40 Muscle weaknessTrembling handsRapid heartbeatFatigueWeight lossDiarrhea or frequent bowel movementsIrritability and anxietyVision problems (irritated eyes or difficulty seeing)Menstrual irregularitiesIntolerance to heat and increased sweatingInfertility
16 HypothyroidismToo little thyroid hormone from an underactive thyroid glandbody's metabolism is slowedMaybe a result of the pituitary gland not producing Thyroid homone Releasing hormonecausing many physical and mental processes to become sluggishbody consumes less oxygen and produces less body heat
17 FatigueMental depressionSluggishnessFeeling coldWeight gainDry skin and hairConstipationMenstrual irregularities
18 Thyroid Nodules small swelling or lump in the thyroid gland nodules represent either a growth of thyroid tissue or a fluid-filled cystmost nodules are not canceroussome thyroid nodules may produce too much thyroid hormone or become too large, interfering with an individual's breathing or swallowing or may cause neck discomfort.