Presentation on theme: "An Introduction to Money and the Financial System"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Introduction to Money and the Financial System Chapter 1An Introduction to Money and the Financial System
2 Introduction The Six Parts of the Financial System What are they?The Five Core Principles of Money and Banking
3 Five Parts of the Financial System 1. MoneyTo pay for purchases and store wealth (fiat money, fiat currency)2. Financial InstrumentsTo transfer resources from savers to investors and to transfer risk to those best equipped to bear it. Example?Financial Markets Buy and sell financial instrumentsChannel funds from savers to investors, thereby promoting economic efficiencyAffect personal wealth and behavior of business firms. Example?4. Financial Institutions.Provide access to financial markets, collect information & provide servicesFinancial Intermediary: Helps get funds from savers to investorsExample?5. Central BanksMonitor financial Institutions and stabilize the economyRegulatory AgenciesTo provide oversight for financial system.
4 Five Core Principles of Money and Banking Time has valueRisk requires compensationInformation is the basis for decisionsMarkets determine prices and allocation resourcesStability improves welfare
5 Five Core Principles of Money and Banking 1. Time has valueTime affects the value of financial instrumentsInterest payments exist because of time properties of financial instruments
6 Five Core Principles of Money and Banking 2. Risk requires compensationIn a world of uncertainty, individuals will accept risk only if they are compensated in some form.
7 Five Core Principles of Money and Banking 3. Information is the basis for decisionsThe collection and processing of information is the basis of foundation of the financial system.
8 Five Core Principles of Money and Banking 4. Markets determine prices and allocate resourcesThe “places” where buyers & sellers “meet” are the core of the economic system
9 Five Core Principles of Money and Banking 5. Stability improves welfare.A stable economy reduces risk and improves everyone's welfare.
10 Sources of Financial News DailyWall Street JournalFinancial TimesBloomberg.comWeeklyThe EconomistBusiness WeekDataPersonal Financial Information
11 Why Study Financial Markets? Financial markets, such as bond and stock markets, are crucial in our economy.These markets channel funds from savers to investors, thereby promoting economic efficiency.Market activity affects personal wealth, the behavior of business firms, and economy as a whole
12 Why Study Financial Markets? Well functioning financial markets, such as the bond market, stock market, and foreign exchange market, are key factors in producing high economic growth.We will briefly examine each of these markets, key statistics, and how we will examine them throughout this course.
13 Why Study Financial Markets? Debt Markets & Interest Rates Debt markets, or bond markets, allow governments, corporations, and individuals to borrow to finance activities.In this market, borrowers issue a security, called a bond, that promises the timely payment of interest and principal over some specific time horizon.The interest rate is the cost of borrowing.
14 Why Study Financial Markets? Debt Markets & Interest Rates There are many different types of market interest rates, including mortgage rates, car loan rates, credit card rates, etc.The level of these rates are important. For example, mortgage rates in the early part of 1983 exceeded 13%. Financing a house was quite expensive at this time.
15 Why Study Financial Markets? Debt Markets & Interest Rates Because interest rates are important to individuals and business, understanding the history of interest rates is beneficial.The next slide shows historical interest rates in various sectors of the bond market: Long-Term U.S. Government rates, Short-Term U.S. Government rates, and corporate rates.We will study these further in several chapters, examining the types and characteristics of bonds, as well as theories on how rates are determined.
16 Why Study Financial Markets? The Stock Market The stock market is the market where common stock (or just stock), representing ownership in a company, are traded.Companies initially sell stock (in the primary market) to raise money. But after that, the stock is traded among investors (secondary market).Of all the active markets, the stock market receives the most attention from the media, probably because it is the place where people get rich (and poor) quickly.
17 Why Study Financial Markets? The Stock Market The next slide shows the level of the Dow Jones Industrial Average over the last 55 years. Note how volatile stock prices have been, especially over the last five years.In future chapters, we will examine the role of the stock market, as well as how prices react to information in the marketplace.
19 Why Study Financial Markets? The Stock Market Companies, not just individuals, also watch the market. Although corporations don’t typically “invest” in the market, they often seek additional funding in equity markets after going public. The success of these seasoned-equity offerings (SEOs) is very dependent on the current price of the company’s stock.
20 Why Study Financial Markets? The Foreign Exchange Market The foreign exchange market is where international currencies trade and exchange rates are set.Although most people know little about this market, it has a daily volume around $1 trillion!View historical financial data and forecasts at
21 Why Study Financial Markets? The Foreign Exchange Market The next slide shows how the U.S. dollar has fluctuated in price against a basket of foreign currencies.These fluctuations matter!In recent years, consumers have found that vacationing in Europe is expensive, due to a weakening dollar relative to the Euro.When the dollar strengthens, foreign purchase of domestic goods falls, and US manufacturers experience a decreased demand for their goods.
23 Why Study Financial Institutions? We will also spend considerable time discussing financial institutions—the corporations, organizations, and networks that operate the so-called “marketplaces.” These institutions play a crucial role in improving the efficiency of the economy. We will look at:Central Banks and the Conduct of Monetary PolicyThe role of the Fed and foreign counterpartsStructure of the Financial SystemHelps get funds from savers to investorsBanks and Other Financial InstitutionsIncludes the role of insurance companies, mutual funds, pension funds, etc.