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Essex EC248-2-SP Lecture 1 Money, Banking and the Financial System: An Introduction Alexander Mihailov, 16/01/06
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-2 Plan of Talk Introduction: why study… 1.Money and payments: evolution 2.Money and macroeconomics: output, inflation, interest rates and macroeconomic policy 3.The financial system: markets and intermediaries 4.Regulation of the financial system Wrap-up
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-3 Aims and learning outcomes Aims –Illustrate the essence of money, banking, payment systems and financial markets in the economy –Build-up a perspective through which monetary innovations and central banks will be studied during the course Learning outcomes –Define and measure money –Summarise the evolution of money and payments –Discuss basic macroeconomic relationships –Understand the role of the financial system –Distinguish between direct and indirect finance –Justify why financial institutions need regulation
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-4 Why study… … Money and monetary policy? => Influence on 1.Business cycles 2.Inflation 3.Interest rates … Financial markets? 1.Channel funds from savers to investors, thereby promoting economic efficiency 2.Affect personal wealth and behavior of business firms … Banks and financial intermediaries? 1.Financial intermediation Helps get funds from savers to investors 2.Banks and money supply Crucial role in creation of money 3.Financial innovation
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-5 Payments: Barter, Money and Credit Economists Meaning of Money 1.Anything generally accepted in payment for goods and services 2.Not the same as wealth or income Functions of Money 1.Medium of exchange 2.Unit of account 3.Store of value Evolution of Payments System 1.Precious metals like gold and silver 2.Paper currency (fiat money) 3.Checks 4.Electronic means of payment 5.Electronic money: debit, stored-value and smart cards, e-cash
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-6 Measures of Money
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-7 Monetary Aggregates
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-8 Money and Business Cycles
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-9 Money and the Price Level
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-10 Money Growth and Inflation
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-11 Money Growth and Interest Rates
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-12 Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-13 The Financial System (Flow of Funds): Structure and Functions 1. Allows transfers of funds from person/business without investment opportunities to one who has them 2. Improves economic efficiency
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-14 Classifications of Financial Markets A. According to the type of the financial instruments sold A.1 Debt Markets Short-term (maturity < 1 year): Money Market Long-term (maturity > 1 year): Capital Market A.2Equity Markets Common stocks B. As to whether the securities sold are of a new or old issue B.1Primary Market New security issues sold to initial buyers B.2Secondary Market Securities previously issued are bought and sold C. As to whether the market can be localised geographically or not C.1Exchanges Trades conducted in central locations (e.g., New York Stock Exchange) C.2Over-the-Counter (OTC) Markets Dealers at different locations buy and sell
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-15 Bond Market
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-16 Stock Market
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-17 Foreign Exchange Market
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-18 Financial Intermediaries: Role Activities 1.Engage in process of indirect finance 2.More important source of finance than securities markets 3.Needed because of (i) transactions costs and (ii) asymmetric information Transactions Costs 1.Make profits by reducing transactions costs 2.Reduce transactions costs by developing expertise and taking advantage of economies of scale Risk Sharing 1.Create and sell assets with low risk characteristics and then use the funds to buy assets with more risk = asset transformation 2.Also lower risk by helping people to diversify portfolios = asset diversification
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-19 Financial Intermediaries: Types of Asymmetric Information Adverse Selection => screening (of projects) 1. Before transaction occurs 2.Potential borrowers most likely to produce adverse outcomes are ones most likely to seek loans and be selected Moral Hazard => monitoring (of clients) 1.After transaction occurs 2.Hazard that borrower has incentives to engage in undesirable (immoral) activities making it more likely not to pay loan back Financial intermediaries reduce adverse selection and moral hazard problems, enabling them to make profits
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-20 Why Regulation of the Financial System? 1.Increases information to investors Decreases adverse selection and moral hazard problems Obliges corporations to disclose information 2.Ensuring the soundness of financial intermediaries thus (hopefully) preventing financial panics 3.Types of regulation A.Chartering: restrictions on entry B.Disclosure: reporting requirements C.Restrictions on assets (to hold) and activities (to engage in) D.Deposit insurance: by the government in case of bank failure E.Restrictions on competition: too much competition harms?… F.Restrictions on interest rates: Regulation Q in US until 1986
© 2004 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved 1-21 Concluding Wrap-Up What have we learnt? –Why it is interesting and useful to study money, financial markets and intermediaries /institutions/ –What money is and how it affects the macroeconomy –How to distinguish indirect from direct finance –Why financial intermediation exists –Why the financial system is heavily regulated Where we go next: to a closer look at financial markets, with a focus on the determinants and role of interest rates
Essex EC248-2-SP Lecture 3 Financial Intermediation: Rationale, Competition, Regulation Alexander Mihailov, 30/01/06.
Essex EC248-2-SP Lecture 8 Financial Innovations: Off-Balance Sheet Activities of Banks Alexander Mihailov, 06/03/06.
Essex EC248-2-SP Lecture 6 Formulating and Implementing Monetary Policy Alexander Mihailov 20/02/06.
Slides prepared by Thomas Bishop Copyright © 2009 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 14 Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates.
Essex EC248-2-SP Lecture 9 Financial Innovations: Nonbank Finance and Electronic Money Alexander Mihailov, 13/03/06.
Essex EC248-2-SP Lecture 10 Money, the State and the Trend toward Cashlessness Alexander Mihailov, 20/03/06.
Essex EC248-2-SP Lecture 2 Financial Markets: Determinants and Role of Interest Rates Alexander Mihailov, 23/01/06.
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