CHOMSKYAN REVOLUTION The impact on PSYCHOLINGUISTICS in the 1970s
Noam Chomsky “ Children have an innate faculty that guides them in their learning of language ”
Klima & Bellugi (1966) Slobin (1970) Brown (1973) is the person who had developed the first study on L1 morpheme acquisition. Found that children all over the world go through SIMILAR STAGES and use SIMILAR CONSTRUCTIONS
LANGUAGE STAGE CRYING Receptive Language Even new babies are aware of the sounds in the environment. The babies cry if there is an unexpected noise. Loud noises wake them, and they become "still" in response to new sounds. BEGINNING AGE BIRTH Expressive Language Newborn babies make sounds that let others know that they are experiencing pleasure or pain. The baby can distinguish mother's voice from another woman's voice. Your baby's first attempts to communicate her needs and emotions
Crying and Fussing * A baby runs the vocal apparatus. * Babies express welfare and discomfort. * Babies use “crying” voluntarily. * They distinguish some sounds: /pa/ /ma/ /ba/ /ga/ * They use nasalized consonants: nga, nga.
Piaget says: At this stage a child changes form circular primary reactions to circular secondary reactions. Coos and guttural noises produce effect around babies. Sounds should be understood, interpreted and answered by the mother.
A child performs multiple spontaneous vocalizations. Alternating vocalizations between mother and child will allow early access to language.
ONE – WORD UTTERANCES 1 year Functions of the word: w ord refers to object ex. Ba for bottle Grammatical function Ex. ba for I want my bottle Social function: ex. Bye - hi Children often make overextension the meaning of the words they know ex. Generalization dog for lambs, cats and cows as well as dogs Underextension : there are many numbers of the samething in the world ex. Lots of cars in the world. Vocabulary of more than 50 words
Holophrastic phrases Couple of words put toghether which have no grammatical concept. Two content words are used: nouns and verbs - Agent + action baby sleep - Action + object Kick ball - Entity + location teddy bed - Possessor + Possessive mommy book Children increase to 8 - 10 new words per week Mini – sentences with simple semantic relation
PLURAL FORMS Sheep - sheeps Bread - breads This is a bird Now there´s another one There are two of them.There are two……? birds ERROR CORRECTION Children don´t correct errors of adult overt They correct errors on the basis of they have leart the forms individually.
EX. Susan go home - David play toy The acquisition of certain structures are predictable. Function words and function morphemes appear. Simplified form to acquire morphemes 1. Present progressive- boy singing 2. Prepositions - dolly in car 3. Plural – candies 4. Past irregular – broke 5. Possesive – baby´s book 6. Past regular – wanted 7. Auxiliar be – he is running THIS SHOE ALL WET, CAT DRINK MILK, AND DADDY GO BYE BYE. WORD INFLECTION 2 YEARS OLD SPEECH BECOMES TELEGRAPHIC : it means utterances commonly used when sending a telegram
QUESTIONS, NEGATIVE 2 and a half years old Utterances with who word appear at the beginning ex. Where Susan pencil? Who that? Others component appear –example modals. Yes / no questions –similar development of who question. Negative shows a similar pattern with singular words. Initially attaching some negative marker to the outside of the sentence ex. No go to bed, and gradually moving the negative marker inside the sentence. Ex. He no big, I´can´t do that
BY 3 YEARS SPEECH IS USUALLY FLUENT AND CLEAR * Use 3-5 word sentences * Ask short questions (what or where) * Have a vocabulary of about 900-1000 words * Engage in simple sentences * Combine four or more words * Talk about things that have happened away from home, preschool
Speak clearly and fluently in an easy-to-listen-to voice. Have a vocabulary of about 1500 to 2500 words. Use sentences of 5 or more words Understand simple (who, what and where questions. Can answer simple questions about them. Can construct long and detailed sentences Most sound are pronounced correctly Use adult – like grammar BY 4 YEARS
BY 5 YEARS COMPLEX CONSTRUCTION Use 6 words _ increasingly complex sentences structure_question form Can I have one? And negation _many descriptive words _fairly long sentences and compound _ correct grammar Know common opposites Pronounce words clearly Speak in complex and compound sentences
BY 6 YEARS Use complex gramatical forms Their pronunciation is clear Laguage moves beyond communication Independent reading skills Speech is developed enough Their vocabularies rapidly increase
BY 7 YEARS Recognize sounds, patterns, meaning and uses Reccognize more words by sight Their vocabularies continue to grow Can apply reading comprenhension strategies Their writing is more developed and engaging
BY 8 YEARS KNOWLEDGE OF TEXT STRUCTURES * Use vocabulary to understand and communicate * Concentrate on tasks * Select and combine skills ans strategies to read fluently with meaning and purpose * Demostrate more highly- developed thinking skills * Writing skills continue to develop * Apply comprehens ion strategies on text
BY 9 YEARS Reading skill with strong fluency and comprehension Writing skill with accurate sentence structure and punctuation Critical thinking starting to emerge More complex sentences used Increased in vocabulary
BY 10 YEARS MATURE SPEECH PATTERNS Have speech patterns that are nearly at an adult level Develop an understanding of multiple meaning and relationships between words Can converse easily with people of different ages Competen users of their mother tongue Know basic rule of grammar and syntax
Children go through stages. Children have individual progress. The stages are similar across languages. Child language is systematic. A child do not need to correspond to adult. Children are resistant to correction.