Presentation on theme: "Language PERTEMUAN 9. 8.1 Communication Psycholinguistics –study of mental processes and structures that underlie our ability to produce and comprehend."— Presentation transcript:
8.1 Communication Psycholinguistics –study of mental processes and structures that underlie our ability to produce and comprehend language Language versus Animal Communication –Human language is distinguished in three ways symbolic - words have an arbitrary relationship to things they represent this symbolic basis allows for “effability” - talk about abstract concepts generative - can generate an infinite number of sentences structured - grammatical rules to produce sentences
Language involves all of our cognitive abilities, and its psychological aspects and are the topic of psycholinguistics Languages enable communication, differ between cultures, are primarily vocal but use a subset of all possible vocalizations.
Defining language precisely is not easy, but the following attributes have been proposed: Language enables communication between individuals. Language is culturally transmitted and varies across cultural groups. Language uses primarily vocal sounds, but only a subset of all possible vocal sounds. Language units are arbitrary symbols that need not have any correspondence to the things they represent. Language has a grammatical structure that can be analyzed on many levels. Language units can be arranged according to this grammar to produce novel utterances and to convey novel ideas.The ideas need not currently be true, and might never have been or never be true.
Chomsky argued that instead of being conditioned, language was supported by an innate language acquisition device that gave the ability to acquire vocabulary and to learn grammatical rules. He proposed that all languages shared a deep structure and a set of phrase structure rules that could be used to produce the surface structure of utterances.
8.2 Language system The discipline of linguistics has provided further insight into the levels of language and the systematic and rule- governed way in which each operates. These levels consist: –the sounds of speech (known in linguistics as phonetics) –the sound system of any particular language (phonology) –word formation (morphology) –the combination of words into phrases and sentences (syntax) –the meanings of words, phrases and sentences (semantics) –and activities using language which extend beyond individual sentences, such as stories, speeches, newspaper articles and conversations (discourse).
Explicit rules (grammar) is taught in school –sentence diagramming Implicit rules are picked up informally by listening to others speak –e.g. PA Dutch grammar - Throw the horse over the fence some hay. Linguistic intuitions –implicit rules that we may not be able to formally state, but we know when they are violated
8.4 Language Development First word Learning Grammar Deprivation Critical Period
First Word By the time that they are a year old, infants are beginning to associate single word utterances or holophrases with general classes of event, and to use the same sound systematically Greenfield and Smith (1976) identified seven aspects or roles that these early one-word utterances related to, and argued that their use followed a developmental sequence –First, infants name the agents who are doing things – usually people. Then they begin to name –the actions that the agents are carrying out, or the state that results from these actions. –Then they start to name the objects affected by the actions –Followed by the state of those objects after the action. –They then in turn start naming the objects that are associates of the action, possessors of objects, and locations of objects.
Critical Period in Language Acquisition Early theories based on behaviorism –parents reinforce correct language use –imitation and reinforcement Current theories suggest that babies are born with at least some innate knowledge of language –not random and rule usage Evidence for the innate aspects of language –children deal with novel sequences in a systematic way e.g. the pluralization of non-words This is a wug. If I had one I will have two ________
Evidence continued –Over-regularization and over-generalization children often learn correct forms such as came and went, but after exposure to many examples of past tenses start to use comed, goed, doed. This is not regression this is application of the rule - even if parents try to correct this. –In all languages children make a similar pattern of errors negation - children start by adding “no” as the first or last word n the sentence –Imitation is not progressive when children try to repeat after an adult, they do not mimic exactly, change the utterance to fit their current level of development –examples
8.6 Disruption to language processing at word level Aphasias Processing spoken words The case of Derek B studied and described by Sue Franklin and David Howard (1992)
Aphasias –Problems with speech production are known as aphasias, and are usually related to a brain injury to the left side of the head, just above and forward of the ear –Broca’s aphasia - front left - problems with expression (non- fluent) articulation problem - can’t produce speech sounds leave out certain sounds more problems with function words and inflections than content words same problem in writing so it is not just a speech error may be left with agrammaria simplified speech may lose classes of words sometimes produce a close associate e.g. spoon for fork
–Wernicke’s aphasia - rear left - produce fluent but meaningless speech. “word salad” - speech without content semantic disorganization demonstrate little or no comprehension of words (can’t follow directions) semantic disorganization sometimes unaware of their disability
Processing spoken words pure word deafness. pure word meaning deafness