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Chapter 8 Language and Thought

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1 Chapter 8 Language and Thought
A.P. Psychology Chapter 8 Language and Thought

2 Language vs. Speech Language Speech
made up of socially shared rules that include the following: What words mean How to make new words How to put words together What word combinations are best in what situations Speech the verbal means of communicating consists of the following: Articulation How speech sounds are made Voice Use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce Fluency The rhythm of speech

3 Language vs. Speech Disorders
Language Disorders Speech Disorders Receptive Language understanding others Expressive Language sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely a person cannot produce speech sounds correctly or fluently A person has problems with his or her voice

4 Language Structure Language
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols to create messages Phonemes Smallest speech units – there are about 40 Includes the 26 letters of the alphabet Morphemes Smallest units of meaning in language Root words, prefixes, suffixes Semantics Meaning of words & word combinations Denotation – dictionary definition Connotation – emotional overtones & secondary implications Syntax Rules that specify how words are arranged into sentences

5 Phonetic Alphabet


7 Milestones in Language Development
First 6 Months Communication through crying, cooing & laughter Babbling & repetitive sounds “ba, ba, ba” “la, la, la” 10 – 13 Months Sounds increasingly resemble words Mama, papa, dada 13 – 18 Months Vocabulary of 3 to 50 words (mostly objects) Comprehension is much greater than production of speech 18 – 24 Months Vocabulary Spurt – up to 20 more words per week Fast Mapping – map a word to an underlying concept after only one exposure

8 Milestones in Language Development
2 – 3 Years Children turn words into sentences Telegraphic Speech  use mainly content words (articles, prepositions & less critical words are omitted) 3 yr olds – should be able to use plurals & past tense Overregularizations – grammar rules are incorrectly generalized 4 – 5 Years Largest strides in language development happen here Metalinguistic Awareness  ability to reflect upon the use of language

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