Motivation, Primary & Secondary Drives Motivation – active behaviour that satisfies needs and works towards a goal –i.e. Hunting to find food to fill hunger need Primary Drive – motive based on innate, biological and survival oriented needs. such as: need for sleep, air, food, water Secondary Drive – motive based on learned needs that have been acquired through the learning process such as: money has no value to an infant, it is only through a learned process does the paper become valuable and a motivator for behaviour
Instinct Motivation Theory Instincts are unlearned, biologically built-in, fixed patterns of behaviour Instincts may be present at birth delayed until the use is necessary (mature enough) a process called “fixed action patterns” Fixed action patterns are specific behaviours that the organism is pre-programmed to perform under specific conditions or when effected by stimuli The stimuli in the environment that give rise to the fixed action pattern are known as “releasers” Thus the stimuli release the instinctual behaviour pattern Since lower animals are limited in their responses they are often guided by instinct ie. The spider will continue to build a web when the web is damaged because it knows no other way to deal with the situation
Lowest level of needs is physiological needs; Food, shelter, water, survival These needs must be met before you can move to the next level
Next level of need is safety and security needs reflect peoples’ desire for predictability in life. Safety needs focus on protection from physical harm. Security needs reflect the need to provide for oneself and one’s family.
Next level of needs Social or belongingness needs deal with emotional and mental well-being. Research has revealed that our needs for affection, a sense of belonging, and group identification are as important for health as food and safety
Self-esteem is a term that describes how you feel about yourself. Esteem needs relate to a person’s self-respect and the respect he or she receives from others.
Self-actualization needs represent a person’s need for growth. Self-actualization is people fulfilling their potential or realizing their fullest capacities as human beings
Maslow’s theory is an optimistic and positive view of human nature because the focus is on human growth & achieving maximum potential All levels of the needs are innate to human nature Some have argued that “self-actualization” is an innate need, that humans strive towards once other needs are met Someone at this level is able to deal with the world in a non-possessive, non-demanding and creative ways --- very few people Most people get entangled in dealing with relationship (belonging) / self-esteem and/or safety / survival
Motivation Cycle Drive Action Drive Subsides Time Elapses Need
Motivation can be Internal - comes from the satisfaction that occurs when a task is performed. When you enjoy doing your job, you are self-motivated. The motivation comes from job content, not job environment. External - is an action taken by another person. It usually involves anticipation of a reward. Typical rewards in the workplace setting include money, awards, and performance feedback.
Summary People are motivated by different needs. The steps an individual goes through to satisfy a need are called the motivational cycle. Motives are individualistic. Motives change over time. According to Maslow, motives vary in strength and importance and can be arranged in an order called a hierarchy.