2 Staffing Organizations Model MissionGoals and ObjectivesOrganization StrategyHR and Staffing StrategyStaffing Policies and ProgramsSupport ActivitiesCore Staffing ActivitiesLegal complianceRecruitment: External, internalPlanningSelection: Measurement, external, internalJob analysisEmployment: Decision making, final matchStaffing System and Retention Management3-2
3 Chapter Outline External Influences Economic Conditions Labor Markets TechnologyLabor UnionsHuman Resource PlanningProcess and ExampleInitial DecisionsForecasting HR RequirementsForecasting HR AvailabilitiesReconciliation and GapsStaffing PlanningStaffing Planning ProcessCore WorkforceFlexible WorkforceOutsourcingDiversity PlanningDemography of the American WorkforceBusiness Case for DiversityPlanning for DiversityLegal IssuesAAPsLegality of AAPsEEO and Temporary Workers
4 Learning Objectives for This Chapter Recognize external influences that will shape the planning processUnderstand how strategic plans integrate with staffing plansBecome familiar with statistical and judgmental techniques for forecasting HR requirements and availabilitiesKnow the similarities and differences between replacement and succession planningUnderstand the advantages and disadvantages of core workforce, flexible workforce, and outsourcing strategies for different groups of employeesLearn how to incorporate diversity into the planning processRecognize the fundamental components of an affirmative action plan
5 Discussion Questions for This Chapter What are ways that the organization can ensure that KSAO deficiencies do not occur in its workforce?What are the types of experiences, especially staffing-related ones, that an organization will be likely to have if it does not engage in HR and staffing planning?Why are decisions about job categories and levels so critical to the conduct and results of HRP?What are the advantages and disadvantages of doing succession planning for all levels of management, instead of just top management?What is meant by reconciliation, and why can it be useful as an input to staffing planning?What criteria would you suggest using for assessing the staffing alternatives shown in Exhibit 3.14?What problems might an organization encounter in creating an AAP that it might not encounter in regular staffing planning?
6 Ex. 3.1: Examples of External Influences on Staffing
7 Labor Markets: Demand for Labor Employment patternsDemand for labor is a derived demandJob growth projectionsEmployment growth projectionsKSAOs soughtKSAO requirementsEducation levelsSurvey of skill deficienciesCritically required skills
8 Labor Markets: Supply of Labor Trends in supply of laborQuantity of labor - Exh. 3.2: Labor Force StatisticsLabor force trends relevant to staffingGrowthKSAOsDemographicsOther trends ???KSAOs availableEducational attainmentLiteracyMotivation
9 Labor Markets: Other Issues Labor shortages and surpluses“Tight” labor markets“Loose” labor marketsEmployment arrangementsFull-time vs. part-timeRegular or shift workAlternative employment arrangementsExh. 3.4: Usage of Alternative Employment Arrangements and Contingent Workers
10 Technology Reduces demands for some jobs Increases demands for others Replacement for laborMakes products or services obsoleteIncreases demands for othersChange in market compositionNew product developmentChanges in required skills
11 Labor Unions Trends in union membership Percentage of labor force unionizedPrivate sector unionization ratePublic sector unionization rateContract clauses affecting staffingImpacts on staffing“Spillover effects”
12 Labor Unions: Contract Clauses Affecting Staffing Management rightsJobs and job structureExternal staffingInternal staffingJob postingLines of movementSeniorityGrievance procedureGuarantees against discrimination
13 Discussion QuestionsWhat are ways that the organization can ensure that KSAO deficiencies do not occur in its workforce?What are the types of experiences, especially staffing-related ones, that an organization will be likely to have if it does not engage in HR and staffing planning?Why are decisions about job categories and levels so critical to the conduct and results of HRP?
14 Overview: Human Resource Planning Process and ExampleInitial DecisionsForecasting HR RequirementsForecasting HR AvailabilitiesReconciliation and Gaps
15 Ex. 3.5: The Basic Elements of Human Resource Planning 3-15
16 Ex. 3.6: The Basic Elements of Human Resource Planning 3-16
17 HRP: Initial Decisions Strategic planningComprehensivenessLinkages with larger organizational missionPlanning time frameJob categories and levelsWhat jobs will be covered by a plan?Head count (current workforce)Roles and responsibilities
18 HRP: Forecasting HR Requirements Statistical techniquesExh. 3.7: Examples of Statistical Techniques to Forecast HR RequirementsJudgmental techniques“Top-down” approach“Bottom-up” approach
22 HRP: Forecasting HR Availabilities ApproachDetermine head count data for current workforce and their availability in each job category/levelStatistical techniquesMarkov analysisLimitations of Markov analysis
23 Ex. 3.9 Use of Markov Analysis to Forecast Availabilities
26 Human Resource Planning Reconciliation and GapsComing to grips with projected gapsLikely reasons for gapsAssessing future implicationsAction PlanningSet objectivesGenerate alternative activitiesAssess alternative activitiesChoose alternative activities
27 Ex. 3.12: Operational Format for Human Resource Planning 3-27
28 Discussion QuestionsWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of doing succession planning for all levels of management, instead of just top management?What is meant by reconciliation, and why can it be useful as an input to staffing planning?
29 Staffing Planning Process Staffing objectivesQuantitative objectivesQualitative objectivesGenerate alternative staffing activitiesStaffing alternatives to deal with employee shortages and surpluses
30 Ex. 3.14 Staffing Alternatives to Deal With Employee Shortages 3-30
31 Ex. 3.14 Staffing Alternatives to Deal With Employee Surpluses 3-31
32 Discussion QuestionsWhat criteria would you suggest using for assessing the staffing alternatives shown in Exhibit 3.14?
33 Exhibit 3.15 Internal Versus External Staffing 3-33
34 Staffing Planning: Flexible Workforce AdvantagesDisadvantagesTwo categoriesTemporary employeesStaffing firmsExh. 3.16: Factors to Consider When Choosing a Staffing FirmIndependent contractors
35 Staffing Planning: Outsourcing AdvantagesDisadvantagesSpecial issuesEmployer concerns regarding working conditionsLoss of control over qualityOffshoring
36 Diversity Planning Business case for diversity strategies The American workforce is highly diverseWomen make up ½ the labor forceImmigrationCivil Rights LegislationAgeBusiness case for diversity strategiesExpanded talent poolsBetter understand diverse customer baseEnhance creativity of teamsReduce turnover
37 Diversity Planning Planning for diversity Recruiting activities Selecting schools and colleges to recruit fromShow commitment to diversity in recruiting effortsSelection activitiesEliminate requirements not related to job performanceInclude objective standards for judging candidate qualifications
38 Legal Issues Affirmative Action Plans (AAPs) Guidelines for AAPs Purpose is remedying past discrimination.Definite underutilization of women and/or minoritiesShould not penalize majority group membersShould be eliminated once goals have been achievedAll candidates should be qualifiedInclude organizational enforcement mechanismsEEO and temporary workers
39 Ex. 3.18 Comparing Incumbency to Availability 3-39
40 Discussion QuestionsWhat problems might an organization encounter in creating an AAP that it might not encounter in regular staffing planning?
41 Ethical Issues Issue 1 Issue 2 Does an organization have any ethical responsibility to share with all of its employees the results of its forecasting of HR requirements and availabilities? Does it have any ethical responsibility not to do this?Issue 2Identify examples of ethical dilemmas an organization might confront when developing an affirmative action plan (AAP).