2 Learning ObjectivesDiscuss how to align a company’s strategic direction with its HR planning.Determine labor demand for workers in various job categories.Discuss advantages and disadvantages of ways to eliminate a labor surplus and avoid a labor shortage.Describe various recruitment policies to make job vacancies more attractive.List various sources from which job applicants can be drawn, their advantages and disadvantages and evaluation methods.Explain the recruiter’s role, limits and opportunities.After reading this chapter, you should be able to:Discuss how to align a company’s strategic direction with its HR planning.Determine labor demand for workers in various job categories.Discuss advantages and disadvantages of various ways to eliminate a labor surplus and avoid a labor shortage.Describe various recruitment policies that organizations adopt to make job vacancies more attractive.List various sources from which job applicants can be drawn, their advantages and disadvantages, and evaluation methods.Explain the recruiter’s role, limits and opportunities in the recruitment process.
3 of labor surplus or shortage Program Implementation 3 Stages in HRPlanning ProcessForecastingof labor surplus or shortageGoal Setting&StrategicPlanningProgram ImplementationEvaluationConsumer and labor markets are two ways that societal trends and events affect employers. 3 Stages in HR Planning Forecasting - The attempts to determine the supply of and demand for various types of human resources to predict areas within the organization where there will be future labor shortages or surpluses. 2. Goal Setting and Strategic Planning - to focus attention on the problem and provide a benchmark for determining the relative success of any programs aimed at redressing a pending labor shortage or surplus. The goals should come directly from the analysis of labor supply and demand and should include a specific figure for what should happen with the job category or skill area and a specific timetable for when results should be achieved. 3. Program Implementation and Evaluation- The programs developed in the strategic-choice stage of the process are put into practice in the program-implementation stage. A critical aspect is to make sure that some individual is held accountable for achieving the stated goals and has the necessary authorityand resources to accomplish this goal. It is also important to have regular progress reports on the implementation to be sure that all programs are in place by specified times and that the early returns from these programs are in line with projections. The final step in the planning process is to evaluate the results.
4 Forecasting Stage of HR Planning Determine Labor Demandderived from product/service demandedexternal in natureDetermine Labor SupplyInternal movements caused by transfers, promotions, turnover, retirements, etc.transitional matrices identify employee movements in different job categories over time to chart historical trends in company’s labor supplyuseful for AA / EEO purposesDetermine Labor Surplus or ShortageOnce forecasts for labor demand and supply are known, the planner can compare the figures to ascertain whether there will be a labor shortage or labor surplus for the respective job categories. When this is determined, the organization can determine what it is going to do about these potential problems.Forecasting determines the demand and supply of human resources and predicts in what positions either surpluses or shortages will exist in the future.1. Determining Labor Demand-Labor demand can be predicted by the use of statistical techniques such as leading indicator, which is an objective measure that accurately predicts future labor demand.2. Determining Labor Supply-Internal labor supply is determined by a detailed analysis of how many people are currently in various job categories, modified to reflect changes in the near future caused by retirements, promotions, transfers, voluntary turnovers, or terminations. A transitional matrix is a table used to project internal labor supply.Determining Labor Surplus or Shortage—By comparing forecasts for labor supply and demand for specific jobs, the organization can determine what it needs to do.
5 Options for Reducing Expected Labor Surplus Option Speed Human Suffering1. Downsizing2. Pay reductions3. Demotions4. Transfers5. Work sharing6. Hiring freeze7. Natural attrition8. Early retirement9. RetrainingFastSlowHighModerateLowTable 5.2 shows options for reducing an expected labor surplus including:DownsizingPay reductionsDemotionsTransfersWork sharingHiring freezeNatural attritionEarly retirementRetraining
6 Options for Avoiding Expected Labor Surplus Option Speed Revocability1. OvertimeTemporary employees3. Outsourcing4. Retrained transfers5. Turnover reductions6. New external hires7. TechnologicalinnovationFastSlowHighModerateLowTable 5.3 shows options for avoiding an expected labor shortage such as:OvertimeTemporary employeesOutsourcingRetrained workersTurnover reductionsNew external hiresTechnological innovationUnfortunately for many workers, in the past decade the typical organizational response to a surplus of labor has been downsizing, which is fast but high in human suffering. The human suffering caused by downsizing has both an immediate and a long-term element. In the short term, the lack of pay, benefits, and meaningful work has negative implications for financial, physical, and psychological aspects of individuals, causing bankruptcies, illnesses, and depression. Then, even if one can survive these immediate problems, in the long term, an extended bout of unemployment (e.g., lasting over six months) can stigmatize the individual, thus reducing future opportunities.
7 DownsizingDownsizing - planned elimination of large numbers of personnel to enhance organizational competitiveness.4 Reasons for Downsizing:reduce labor coststechnological changes reduce need for labor*mergers and acquisitions reduce bureaucratic overheadorganizations change location of where they do business* Economy wide, capital spending ratio increased over 300% between , indicating employers substituting technology for labor.Downsizing – the planned elimination of large numbers of personnel designed to enhance organizational competitiveness.Reasons why organizations downsize:Cost reduction through decreased labor.Technological changes reduce need for laborClosing outdated plants.Organizations changed location of where they do business.Mergers and acquisitions reduced the need for large bureaucracies.For economic reasons, many firms relocated parts of operations.Although downsizing has an immediate effect on costs, much of the evidence suggests that it has negative effects on long-term organizational effectiveness, especially for some types of firms.
8 Possible Negative Effects of Downsizing Long-term effects of an improperly managed downsizing effort can be negative.Lower long-term profit, performance and productivityLoss of talentDisrupts social networks needed for creativity and innovationLong-term effects of an improperly managed downsizing effort can be negative.Lower long-term profit, performance and productivityLoss of talentDisrupts social networks needed for creativity and innovationMany firms that announce a downsizing campaign show worse, rather than better, financial performance. Reasons include:Although the initial cost savings are a short-term plus, the long-term effects of an improperly managed downsizing effort can be negative.Many downsizing campaigns let go people who turn out to be irreplaceable assets.Employees who survive the staff purges often become narrow-minded, self-absorbed, and risk-averse.Downsizing not only leads to a loss of talent, but in many cases it disrupts the social networks needed to promote creativity and flexibility. Many employees also start looking for alternative employment opportunities.The negative publicity associated with a downsizing campaign can also hurt the company’s image in the labor market, making it more difficult to recruit employees later.In an age of blogs and text messaging, once-private practice of laying off employees is increasingly transparent, and any organizational mistake that gets made in the process is likely to become highly public. The key to avoiding reputation damage is to ensure that the need for the layoff is well explained and that procedures for implementing the layoff are fair, avoid indiscriminant across-the board cuts, and instead perform surgical strategic cuts that not only reduce costs, but also improve the firm’s competitive position.
9 Early Retirement Programs The average age of U.S. workforce is increasing.Baby boomers are not retiring early due to:improved healthfear that Social Security will be cutmandatory retirement is outlawedcollapse of the financial and housing markets made it economically unviable to retireMany employers try voluntary attrition among older workers through early retirement incentive programs.The average age of the U.S. worker is increasing. Baby boomers are not retiring early due to:improved healthfear that Social Security will be cutmandatory retirement is outlawedcollapse of the financial and housing markets made it economically unviable to retireAnother means of reducing a labor surplus is to offer an early retirement program. Many employers try voluntary attrition among older workers through early retirement incentive programs. Because of improved health of the older worker and decrease in physical demands of the job individuals are able to work long past the traditional retirement age. Although an older workforce brings experience and stability, it can be more costly than younger workers because of seniority, higher medical costs, and higher pension contributions. Many employers are stressing early retirement by offering incentive programs to older employees.
10 Employing Temporary Workers Hiring temporary workers helps eliminate a labor shortage and affords flexibility needed to operate efficiently during demand swings.3 Advantages:Temporary workers free a company from administrative tasks and financial burdens.Temporary workers are often times tested and trained by a temporary agency.Many temporary workers brings an objective perspective and experience.Some strategies can be turned on and off fairly painlessly, such as the use of overtime and/or temporary employees. Operational flexibility is the primary reason for this, although the use of temps also frees the firm from many administrative tasks and financial burdens (health insurance, pension, worker's compensation, life insurance, etc.). Smaller companies may use temporary agencies to do their employment screening for them. Training may be done by the agency as well. Temporary employees bring a fresh perspective to the firm, particularly if they have temped in a number of other organizations.
11 Outsourcing and Offshoring Outsourcing uses an outside organization for a broad set of services.Offshoring is outsourcing where jobs leave one country and go to another.To help ensure the success of outsourcing:Choose an established, large outsourcing vendor.Jobs that are proprietary or require tight security should not be outsourced.Start small and monitor constantly.Outsourcing—This occurs when a firm is interested in a broad set of services performed by an outside organization. Cost savings in this area are easily obtained because rather than purchase and maintain their own specialized hardware and software, as well as specialized staff to support such systems, companies can time share the facilities and expertise of a firm that focuses on this technology. Companies increasingly outsource many of their HRM tasks to outside vendors who specialize in efficiently performing many of the more routine administrative tasks associated with this function to manage the HR unit and free HR managers to focus on more strategic issues.Offshoring is a special case of outsourcing where the jobs that move actually leave one country and go to another. Steps to take that help ensure the success of outsourcing strategies include:When choosing an outsourcing vendor, it is usually the bigger and older the better.Jobs that are proprietary or require tight security should not be outsourced.It is a good idea to start small and monitor constantly.Quality control problems, security violations, and poor customer service experiences can wipe out all the cost savings attributed to lower wages and more without sufficient steps.
12 Altering Pay and Hours Garner more hours from current employees Cut salariesReduce contributions to 401(k) plansReduce number of hours of all workers.There are alternatives to downsizing such asGarner more hours from current employeesCut salariesReduce contributions to 401(k) plansReduce number of hours of all workers.
13 Affirmative Action Planning Plan for various subgroups within a labor force.Workforce utilization review is a comparison of the proportion of workers in protected subgroups with the proportion that each subgroup represents.Workforce utilization review is a comparison that examines the proportion of a company's workers in a subgroup to the proportion that each subgroup represents in the relevant labor market. This comparison is used to determine whether any subgroups may be underutilized. Underutilization occurs when the proportion of the subgroup in the organization is lower than that of the labor market due to problems in selection process or from problems in internal movement or for other causes.A voluntary affirmative action program may be implemented in which selection programs may be reviewed and revised to decrease the underutilization and/or increase the diversity of the organization and decrease the likelihood of a lawsuit.
14 HR Recruitment Process Job ChoiceJobChoiceVacancyCharacteristicsApplicantCharacteristicsHuman resource recruitment is the practice or activity carried on by the organization with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees, designed to affect the number of people who apply for vacancies, the type of people who apply for them, and/or the likelihood that those applying for vacancies will accept positions if offered. The role of HR recruitment is to build a supply of potential new hires that the organization can draw on if the need arises. The goal of recruitment is to ensure that when a vacancy occurs, the organization has a number of reasonably qualified applicants to choose from. All companies have to make decisions in three areas of recruiting:(1) personnel policies, which affect the kinds of jobs the company has to offer;(2) recruitment sources used to solicit applicants, which affect the kinds of people who apply; and(3) characteristics and behaviors of the recruiter that influence the nature of vacancies and of people applying for jobs that shapes job choice decisions.Personnel PoliciesRecruiter Traits& BehaviorsRecruitmentSourcesRecruitment Influences
15 Personnel PoliciesOrganizational decisions that affect the nature of the vacancies for which people are recruited.Characteristics of the vacancy are more important thanrecruiters or recruiting sources.Personnel Policies vary:Internal versus external recruitingExtrinsic versus intrinsic rewardsEmployment-at-will policiesDue process policiesImage advertisingPersonnel policies, in relationship to recruitment, affect the nature of the vacancies for which people are required and impact the ability of the organization to recruit and its level of success.Internal versus External Recruiting—A decision must be made on whether to recruit from within or outside the organization.Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards—Lead‑the‑market pay strategy is a policy of paying higher than current market wages.Employment‑at‑will policies state that either party in the employment relationship can terminate that relationship at anytime, regardless of cause. Companies that do not have employment at will typically have extensive due process policies that describe steps an employee can take to appeal a termination decision.Due process policies formally lay out the steps an employee can take to appeal a termination decision.Image advertising promotes an organization as a good place to work in general and may be particularly important for organizations in highly competitive labor markets that perceive themselves as having a bad image.
16 Recruitment Sources JOBS Colleges & Universities campus placement servicesInternal Sourcesfaster, cheaper,more certaintyPublic & PrivateEmployment Agencies -headhunters can beexpensiveExternal Sourcesnew ideas & approachesJOBSJOBSElectronic RecruitingInternetSocial Networking SitesRecruitment Sources—Since recruitment sources are unlimited, an organization must decide how to reach the best sources of potential employees. The sources from which a company recruits potential employees are a critical aspect of its overall recruitment strategyInternal versus External Sources—Relying on internal sources is useful since employees are well known and are knowledgeable about the organization and jobs. However, there may not be enough internal recruits. Outsiders may bring new ideas or new ways of doing business and strengthen the organization.2. Direct Applicants and Referralsa. Direct applicants are people who apply for a vacancy without prompting from an organization.Referrals are people who are prompted to apply for a vacancy by someone within the organization.3. Advertisements in newspapers and periodicals – Typically are less effective than direct applicants or referrals and more expensive. The two most important questions to ask in designing a job advertisement are, What do we need to say? and To whom do we need to say it?4. Electronic Recruiting – The growth of the information highway as opened up new vistas for organizations trying to recruit talent such as social networking sites., niche boards, search engine sites as well as job boards. Social networking sites such as LinkedIn, Facebook, etc. Help recruiters reach applicants.5. Public and Private Employment Agencies—Agencies will search their computerized inventory of individuals searching for work for an organization at no charge. Executive search firms generate a small list of highly qualified, interested applicants, but this is an expensive source compared with other alternatives.6. Colleges and universities may be an important source for entry level professionals. To increase effectiveness, organizations employ internship programs to get early access to potential applicants and to assess their capabilities directly.Direct Applicants& Referralsself selection, low costNewspaper Advertising -large volume, low qualityrecruits
17 Recruiters Functional Area Traits Realism HR versus operating area specialistTraitswarm and informativeRealismrealistic job previewHonestyRecruiters—Recruiters may have more impact depending on a number of factors.1. Recruiter’s Functional Area—The recruiter is likely to be perceived as more credible if he or she is from the same functional area the recruit is being considered for.Recruiter‘s Traits—Critical traits appear to be warmth and “informativeness.”Recruiter's Realism—Deceiving candidates about the negative elements of a job may increase later turnover; however, telling candidates about negative elements does not appear to inoculate them against disappointment or make negative elements go away. Personnel policies that affect the job's attributes are likely to be more critical than recruiter realism.
18 2 Steps to Enhance Recruiter Impact 1. Provide timely feedback2. Recruit in teamsRecruiters can provide timely feedback about the status of the job search, avoid unfavorable behaviors that send poor messages about the organization, avoid mixing recruitment with selection and recruit in teams.
19 SummaryHR planning uses labor supply and demand forecasts to anticipate labor shortages and surpluses to enhance organization’s success and reduce human suffering.HR recruiting creates an applicant pool should a labor shortage occur.Organizations can use recruiters to influence individuals’ perceptions of jobs.HR planning uses labor supply and demand forecasts to anticipate labor shortages and surpluses. entails programs that can be utilized to reduce a labor surplus (such as downsizing and early retirement programs) and eliminate a labor shortage (like bringing in temporary workers or expanding overtime). HR planning can enhance the success of the organization while minimizing the human suffering resulting from poorly anticipated labor surpluses or shortages. HR recruiting is a buffer activity that creates an applicant pool that the organization can draw from in the event of a labor shortage that is to be filled with new hires. Organizational recruitment programs affect applications through personnel policies (such as promote-from-within policies or due process provisions) that affect the attributes of the vacancies themselves. They can also impact the nature of people who apply for positions by using different recruitment sources. Organizations can use recruiters to influence individuals’ perceptions of jobs.