2 The first stage in reproduction.. Sexual Intercourse:Copulation
3 Humans have specially designed reproductive organs for copulation. Male Reproductive SystemProstate GlandProduces the fluid which nourishes the sperm and allows them to swimSperm DuctCarries the sperm from the testes to the penisTestesProduces and stores the spermPenisIs placed inside the vagina where it deposits sperm
4 Female Reproductive System UterusOviductOvaryDevelops a spongy lining for the embryo to implantStores and releases egg cellsCervixWhere fertilisation takes place. Embryo moves down towards uterus.Connects the uterus to the vaginaVaginaEntry point of the penis during copulation.
5 Route to Fertilisation OvaryOviductUterus1. Egg is released from the ovary and picked up by the oviduct.4.2.Egg is moved along oviduct by hair like cilia.23. Sperm is deposited in the vagina and swims towards the egg up the oviduct.1.13.4. Sperm and egg meet and FERTILISATION takes place.
6 After Fertilisation 1. Fertilisation produces a Zygote. OvaryOviductUterus1.21. Fertilisation produces a Zygote.2. The zygote divides in half to form an embryo.33, The embryo continues to divide until it forms a ball of identical cells.44. The embryo implants itself in the wall of the uterus where it continues to develop.
7 Once the embryo has implanted itself within the uterus the ball of cells begins to specialise into different types of cells.The embryo must not only develop into a baby but it must also provide a way of catering for the developing babys needs.What are these needs?ProtectionFoodOxygenExcrete Waste Products
8 Food, Oxygen and Excretion of waste Supplying food and oxygen and the excretion of waste is the responsibility of the placenta.The placenta is formed from part of the embryonic ball of cellsThe placenta is a link between the mother and the developing embryo
9 Placenta Foetus Umbilical Cord Placenta The Placenta is formed around two weeks after the embryo has implanted in the uterus.
10 A closer lookMotherAlthough very close together the maternal and foetal bloodstream do not mix.OxygenCO2WasteFoodThe required substances are able to pass from the mothers blood supply to the foetus and vice versa by DIFFUSIONFoetal blood supplyMaternal Blood SupplyUmbilical chordFoetus
11 PROTECTION The developing foetus is vulnerable and needs protection This is provided by a fluid called amnion which is enclosed in the amniotic sac.Amniocentesis is a test performed on the amnion which can detect chromosomal defects.
12 Embryonic Development 1st Month SIZE: 0.5 cmFeatures Formed: spine, nervous system kidneys, intestines,Additional Notes: Day 21 heart starts beating , legs,arms eyes and ears are noticeable
13 Foetal Development 2nd Month Size:1 cm.Features Formed: Arms legs, fingers and toes.Additional Notes: Recognisable as a human so it is a foetus Responds to touch and can feel pain. Can hear the amniotic fluid rushing by.
14 Foetal Development 3rd Month Size: 5cmFeatures Formed: vocal chords and brain fully formedAdditional Notes:Foetus can squint swallow frown and make a fist. The mother may a kick as it moves around
15 Foetal Development 5th Month Size:30 cmFeatures Formed: completely developed. Eyebrows and eyelashes. Sex organs formedAdditional notes: recognise voices, can jump in surprise.
16 Foetal Development 7th Month Size:40 cmFeatures Formed: fully developedAdditional notes: Foetus spends most of its time sleeping. Over the next two months it will grow to 3x its length and develop fat.
17 Gestation PeriodThe gestation period is the time from the implantation of the egg to the birth of the baby.In humans it is approximately 9 months
18 Have a guess how long the gestation period is for a cat?? 6o days gestation
19 Guess how long the gestation period is for this mouse? 12 days!!!!
20 Guess how long the gestation period is for an elephant? An elephant has the longest gestation period of months
21 The final stage of reproduction is the birth of the new individual
22 The baby decides when it is time to arrive and sends a message to the mother. The placenta detaches from the mother and the baby begins its journey down the cervix.The mother will feel contractions as the baby moves, this is the first sign of labour.The amniotic sac will then burst releasing the fluid this is known as your waters breaking.The baby will continue to move down through the cervix and out of the vagina
23 You are about to see the most amazing video clip Look away if your squeemish
24 Congratulations you have survived the journey of reproduction from start to end. Wasn’t it AMAZING