2ReproductionAll living things reproduce and produce offspring similar to themselves.If they did not reproduce, their numbers would decrease and they would become extinct.
3Sexual ReproductionSexual reproduction involves the meeting of 2 sex cells called GAMETES.The male gamete is called the sperm.The female gamete is called the egg.This meeting and joining is called FERTILISATION.
4Fertilisation Fertilisation can either be INTERNAL or EXTERNAL. External fertilisation is usually found in water based animals.The gametes meet outside the body of the parents, e.g. trout.The eggs are released into the water and the sperm are released over the top of them.Large numbers of both are produced due to the high chance of failure as well as the high mortality rate.
5FertilisationInternal fertilisation is usually found in terrestrial animals (Land based).It still requires the presence of a fluid for the sperm to swim in.The sperm fertilises the egg inside the body of the female.
6Human ReproductionA male mammal has a special organ called a penis for placing sperm into the female.During copulation the penis is inserted into the female’s vagina.Sperm are released into the vagina.
7Human Male Reproductive System TestisSperm ductPenisSeminal vesiclesUrethraProstate glandForeskinScrotum
8Human Female Reproductive System OviductUterusOvaryVaginaCervixLabia
9Fertilisation Fertilisation is when one sperm fuses with one egg. The sperm loses its tail and the male nucleus joins the female nucleus.A membrane called the FERTILISATION MEMBRANE then forms round the fertilised egg, preventing other sperms from entering.
10FertilisationIn both types of fertilisation there is an attraction between the sperm and eggs.The sperm swim towards the egg for fertilisation – in land animals they swim in a fluid called SEMEN.
11FertilisationInternal fertilisation is more efficient because the eggs are protected inside the body of the mother.Fewer eggs are produced and the gametes are closer together and therefore the chances of fertilisation are greater.
12FertilisationAfter fertilisation, the fertilised egg called a ZYGOTE begins to divide and the first division results in 2 cells being formed.Further divisions increase the number to 4 then 8 and so on until a ball of many cells is produced.
13Human DevelopmentHuman females produce one egg per month in a process called OVULATION.The egg, released by the ovary, passes into the fallopian tube (oviduct) where fertilisation may occur.The zygote divides and the ball of cells produced becomes implanted into the wall of the uterus.
14Human DevelopmentAfter the zygote has implanted into the wall of the uterus it begins to grow and develop.A special structure called the PLACENTA develops, allowing the blood of the mother and embryo to come very close without mixing.The embryo is attached to the placenta by the UMBILICAL CORD.The placenta allows the mother and embryo to exchange essential materials.
17Trout Development Trout breed during the month of November. After fertilisation occurs, the trout eggs begin to develop.Living organisms grow and develop at different rates.During this time many changes may occur before the organism becomes sexually mature and capable of reproduction.
20Trout Growth Rate Between which years did the trout grow fastest? At what age did it reach full size?Suggest what size it will be in 10 years.Years 1 & 2Year 736 cm
21Survival Chances Many gametes and young don’t survive reproduction. Only the fittest offspring survive to produce more of the species.Different groups of animals produce different amounts of eggs.
22Total No. of eggs produced Survival ChancesTotal No. of eggs producedNo. of eggs fertilisedNo. of eggs diseasedNo. of zygotes eatenNo. of young eatenRabbit84Trout30002000200800850Pheasant151223Human1Frog100075050400Calculate the percentage survival rate of each animal.