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Published byAshlyn Lloyd Modified over 7 years ago
Immigration / Urbanization
Nativism a policy of favoring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants First targeted Irish (Catholic) immigrants Next focused on Asian immigrants Then Eastern and Southern European immigrants
1870 – Naturalization Act Limits American citizenship to "white persons and persons of African descent” – Specifically established to discriminate against Asians
Hands off, Gentlemen! America means fair play for all men.
1882 – Chinese Exclusion Act Ended Chinese immigration for 10-year period – Argument was based on loss of jobs to lower-paid Chinese workers, called “coolies” – Chinese had largely built western half of transcontinental railroad Were willing to work for less money and do difficult jobs
The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"
New European Immigrants Around 1880, large numbers of Eastern and Southern Europeans begin arriving in America – Darker skin – Different religions (Jews, Catholics, Orthodox) – Tended to be poorer, less educated than Northern and Western European immigrants
Assimilation vs Seclusion Assimilation – becoming part of the culture – Speaking English, eating different food, wearing the same clothes – Younger immigrants and second wave immigrants tended to assimilate Seclusion – Maintain old ways, old language, traditional diet and dress – Older immigrants or those who were able to find work with a proprietor of the same culture
McKinley Assassination 1901 – Polish-American anarchist killed President McKinley 1903 – Anarchist Exclusion Act passed – First time political ideas could be used to prevent entrance to America
1901 - 1910 Nearly 9,000,000 immigrants came to America during the decade – About 12,000,000 in the previous 40 years
Urban Living – the tenements
Jacob Riis Photographer who worked to expose the conditions of tenements and immigrants Danish immigrant Published “How the Other Half Lives” in 1889 Known as a “muckraker”
Jane Addams Founded Hull-House – Settlement house Settlement houses typically attracted educated, native born, middle-class and upper-middle class women and men, known as “residents,” to live (settle) in poor urban neighborhoods – Provided services to poor residents, worked for better treatment of immigrants – Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
1901 – Tenement House Act Established Tenement House Commission – Meant to oversee regulations Ventilation Sewage/Plumbing/Toilets Light Overcrowding Not well enforced, opposed strongly by landlords
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