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Review What were some of the problems caused by urbanization and what were some ways that cities sought to remedy them?
E Pluribus Unum (From Many, One) A short history of American Immigration 1607-1920
Today’s Objectives Learn the history of immigration to the U.S. Learn the commonalities of the “old” immigrants. Learn the characteristics of the “New” immigrants.
Preview What are some reasons (throughout history) that people have wanted to immigrate to the U.S.? What are some reasons that people are hostile towards immigrants?
Original Inhabitants Except for Native Americans, all other types of people that live in the U.S. were immigrants at one time or another.
Colonial Immigration From the 1600s to the 1820’s, the following types of people made up most of those that immigrated to the Americas: A. English B. Africans C. Scots-Irish D. Dutch E. Swedes F. Germans This groups of Immigrants is usually refereed to as the “Old Immigrants.”
Commonalities of “Old Immigrants” Aside from the people from Africa who were forced to come here against their will, the “Old Immigrants” tended to have the following things in common: A. They were from Northern or Western Europe. B. They were mostly Protestant Christians. There were, however, small amounts of Catholics and Jews. The dominant culture was that of the English —language, politics— because they were the majority and for 170 years, the U.S. was ruled by England.
The Irish The first immigrants who came to this country willingly that faced widespread hostility were the Irish. –The Irish came mainly from 1840-1860 (1.7 million). –They came because the situation in Ireland was bad—Most Irish were very poor and then a potato famine in the 1840s caused mass starvation. –The reasons that they faced discrimination were: A. They were Catholic. B. Ireland had been conquered by the English and the English had always considered the Irish to be an inferior, uncivilized people.
Common Stereotype of the Irish They were seen as hard- drinking, ill-tempered, and half-civilized.
“Irish Need Not Apply” Because of the discrimination they faced (and due to the fact most were not skilled workers), the Irish immigrants worked as laborers or domestic servants for low pay.
The Chinese Started coming mainly after the Civil War to do the labor on the West Coast side of the transcontinental railroad. Suffered from terrible prejudice and violence. Were victims of anti-Chinese immigration laws that were passed in the 1880s. These laws were the first to limit immigration to America.
The “New Immigrants” Came primarily from Eastern and Southern Europe. Start Coming to U.S. at end of 1800s. Brought different languages, customs, and religious beliefs that were different than most “native-born” Americans at the time. Most of the “new” immigrants were Catholics and Jews. Most were unskilled workers who settled in Northeastern cities in ethnic neighborhoods.
Attitudes towards the “New Immigrants” Many Americans subscribed to social Darwinistic theories that held that the descendents of the Nordic race (people from Northern and Western Europe) were superior to everyone else. This was evidenced by their domination of other people throughout the world. People who held this view worried that intermixing with the “New immigrants” would bring the American people to a lower level. This view, and the fear of competition for jobs, resulted in restrictive immigration acts in 1917, 1921, and 1924.
More reasons why people were hostile to “new” Immigrants Thought they were the “garbage” of the countries that they were leaving. People complained that they were taking jobs from people already here. People felt that many of the “new” immigrants were political radicals that were into socialism.
Statue of Liberty
The New Colossus Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"the brazen giant of Greek fame Emma Lazarus, 1883
Nativism Term used to refer to anti-immigrant attitude. Nativists.
Review 1. What were the commonalities of the “old” immigrants? 2. Why was their hostility to the Irish when they began arriving in the US? 3. Where were the “New” immigrants from and why was there hostility to them? 4. Who was the first ethnic group that the US tried to restrict from coming to this country?
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