3The New ColossusNot like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"Emma Lazarus, 1883
4WHY? 1865 - 1914 Over 25 Million Immigrants came to US. End of Civil War to World War IOver 25 Million Immigrants came to US.WHY?
5Conditions that drive people from their homes or homeland. Push FactorsConditions that drive people from their homes or homeland.
6Conditions that attract immigrants to a new country. Pull FactorsConditions that attract immigrants to a new country.
7Push Factors for Immigration Pull Factors for Immigration Famine (Ireland)War/RevolutionReligious Persecution (pogroms against Russian Jews)Political PersecutionScarce LandFarm jobs lost to invention of new machinesPoverty (no hope of improving standard of living)Promise of freedom and equality under the lawEconomic Opportunity (raise standard of living)Jobs available (factories)Friends or family have already settled in America
870 % of all immigrants came through New York City at... "Golden Door"70 % of all immigrants came through New York City at...
21“Old Immigrants” from Northern & Western Europe First Wave (Old):IrishEnglishScottishGerman“Old Immigrants” from Northern & Western Europe
22Second Wave (New):ItalyPolandAustriansHungariansRussiaUkraineNorwaySwedenDenmarkGreeceCzechsSlovaks“New Immigrants” from Eastern & Southern Europe
23Causes of rapid growth of US cities in late 1800s… ImmigrantsAmericans moving to cities (as frontier closed)African Americans (prejudice, hard times)
24Rapid growth of cities in US leads to: Poor Living Conditions (tenement slums)Ethnic Neighborhoods
25Nativists:Opposed immigration. Wanted to preserve America for native-born, white protestants.Saw foreigners as threat (job competition)
26Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882 – act passed to limit number of immigrants from China.
27Assimilation: the process of blending into society by adopting the dominant culture. Acculturation: learning and adapting new ways while still hanging on to old traditions.America becomes a “melting pot” of immigrant cultures.