5 Styles ( Eras) Of Jazz Music 1880’s to 19101987-present
6 Ragtime Music 1897 Harlem Rag 1899 Maple Leaf Rag 1902 The Entertainer 1906 Frog Leg’s Rag1919 Bohemia RagTom TurpinScott JoplinJames ScottJoseph Lamb
7 Ragtime Music 1897 starts the influence of Ragtime Ragtime predated the availability of sound recordings so its popularity was by word of mouth.Was distributed by sheet musicWith industrialization, railroad construction its popularity quickly spreadPiano rolls and player pianos play an important role with ragtime music
8 Ragtime MusicInvention of the phonograph helped spread ragtime music and helped the music industryStride piano is an important aspect of Ragtime music that had a direct influence on modern music todayPrimarily written for piano but towards the mid 1910’s, some songs were arranged for different ensembles thus leading the way into Dixieland music
9 Styles of Ragtime Music Cakewalk-popular in 1904, music is intended to represent of dance contests where the prize is a cakeTwo-Step-Popular in 1911, dance craze that was popular in the early 1900’sRagtime Song- version of ragtime music that was influential to Irving Berlin, American composer, influential in early Hollywood and Broadway
10 Styles of Ragtime Music Classic Rag- Style made popular by Scot Joplin, main style of ragtime musicFox-Trot- dance style started in 1913, became popular in 1920’sStride Piano- emerged after WW1 fast paced moving bass line, direct influence on early Rock & Roll
11 Ragtime Revivals1950’s better recording devices were invented so older songs were recorded on record and published causing a revival in popularity1970’s- Joshua Rifkin recorded a series of Scott Joplin music and won a Grammy, re-introduced Joplin’s music to the publicNew York Public Library released a 2 volume set of Scott Joplin music which introduced a new audience to his music1974- the movie The Sting staring Robert Redford and Paul Newman used Scott Joplin songs as its theme songs.
12 Scott Joplin Father Of Ragtime 1899 Maple Leaf Rag Most Famous Ragtime Song1902 The Entertainer
13 Scott Joplin Best known ragtime musician and composer Father of Ragtime music1891-Part of a minstrel troupe1895 started selling his musicWorked as a pianist in Maple Leaf and Black 400 gentlemen clubs1899 Sold his most famous piece Maple Leaf Rag to John StarkBoosted his popularity and made ragtime famousTreemonisha- opera based on ragtime music
14 The Maple Leaf RagNamed after a bar Joplin worked at in Sedalia Missouriragtime's biggest hitThe success of the Maple Leaf Rag sparked a nationwide ragtime craze.1899 Publication of the Maple Leaf Ragbecomes a nationwide best-seller1903 The first recording of Maple Leaf Rag is made, in Minneapolis
15 The Entertainer 1902 The Entertainer Featured in the 1973 movie the sting featuring Paul Newman and Robert RedfordHelped to launch a ragtime revival which increased the popularity of ragtime musicSong influenced John Williams to write the cantina song in Star Wars
16 Joseph Lamb Influential Composer 1908 Met Joplin 1908 Sensation 1919 Bohemia Rag
17 Joseph Lamb White influential ragtime musician and composer Self taught musicianBig fan and influenced by Joplin1908- New York, was purchasing Scott Joplin music in record store when he met Scott JoplinIntroduced to John StarkLambs music was published for the next decade1908- Sensation1914- Cleopatra Nightingale1919 Bohemia RagWhen popularity of Ragtime faded, decided to work as an accountant1950’s revival had him come out of retirement and start performing again
18 James Scott 1902 worked for Charles Dumars and met Joplin 1903 A summer Breeze1906 Frog Legs Rag
19 James Scott One of the big three composers of ragtime music Born in Neosho Missouri1902 worked in music store of Charles Dumars as menial laborShowed musical ability so Dumars published his musicA Summer Breeze in 19031906 moved to St. LouisMet Scott Joplin and John Stark1906 Frog Legs Rag1914 moved to Kansas CityMarried, taught music, directed theater orchestraTalking movies began so he lost his first fortune. Wife died, bad healthContinued to compose until Starks retirement in 1922
20 Tom Turpin Father of St. Louis Ragtime 1896 Harlem Rag First Politically Powerful African Americans in St. Louis
21 Tom Turpin Ragtime composer and businessman Opened saloon in St. Louis which became a meeting place for musiciansFirst African American to publish a ragtime song “Harlem Rag” in 1897Other famous song was St. Louis RagOwned several businesses in St. Louis, theater, saloons, gambling housesWas a deputy sheriff and one of the first politically powerful African Americans in St. Louis.His influence on local music earned him the nickname Father of St. Louis Ragtime.
22 John StarksWas the publisher of the most famous ragtime composition from the 1900’s-1920’sMoney he earned by publishing Maple Leaf Rag enabled him to increase his publishing companyMoved from Sedalia Missouri to St. Louis and finally to New YorkHe and Scott Joplin moved togetherOne of the first music Promoters and Advertiserspersistently challenged the musical (and racial) prejudices that prevented true ragtime from receiving its due.Competed against Tin Pan Alley Producers
24 Tin Pan AlleyWas the popular music publishing center of the world from around 1885 to the 1920'sBefore it was established, publishers were scattered all over the countrythese early publishers played important roles in the printing and distribution of sheet music. Most music publishers also published church music, music instruction books, study pieces and classical items for home and school use.After the Civil War, people started to play the piano.By ,00 young Americans were learning the pianoThe demand for sheet music was great.Publishers decided to consolidate in New York.New York was becoming a cultural center in the United States.Performers lived there, music thrived there, musical trends happened there
25 Tin Pan AlleyThomas B. Harms (Harms, Inc. started in 1881)Isadore Witmark. M. Witmark & Sons published their first sheet music I'll Answer That Question Tomorrow in 1885.Soon every major music publisher in America had a presence in what would become Tin Pan AlleyIrving Berlin, Inc., Remick Music Co., Robbins Music Corp, and E. B. Marks Music CompanyThese visionaries concentrated almost exclusively on popular music, and the key to their success was their use of market research to select music and the use of aggressive marketing techniques to sell the product.Song composers were hired under contract giving the publisher exclusive rights to popular composer's works
26 Tin Pan AlleyThe market was surveyed to determine what style of song was selling bestThen the composers were directed to compose in that style.a song was actually tested with both performers and listeners to determine which would be published and which would go to the trash binmusic was becoming an industry more than an artSong pluggers (performers who worked in music shops playing the latest releases,) were hiredPerformers were persuaded to play the new songs in their acts to give the music exposure to the public
27 Tin Pan Alley28th street between 5th Avenue and Broadway. This street (28th) became known as "Tin Pan Alley.the first to establish themselves in the area known as Tin Pan Alley was most probably Leo Feist, a corset salesman who had a penchant for writing catchy lyricsIn 1897 Feist rented a room at 1227 Broadway and with a piano and a partner began the music publication business with his first song, Does True Love Ever Run Smooth.The name symbolizes the sound of the many pianos being pounded in publisher's rooms which was characterized as sounding as though hundreds of people were pounding on tin pans.
28 Tin Pan Alleyvaudeville replaced the minstrel show as the most popular form of stage entertainmentenormous amounts of money were to be made from the sale of songs popularized by these showsIn the first two decades of its existence, Tin Pan Alley produced a succession of songs, remarkable from a commercial standpoint and for their endurance in American culture.Large numbers of songs from this period became widely known and are a part of our traditions even today.Give My Regards To Broadway (1904), Shine on Harvest Moon (1908,), Down by the Old Mill Stream (1910) and Let Me Call You Sweetheart
29 Tin Pan AlleyThe lyrics of music from this period suggest that the USA was a peaceful, happy and prosperous place.The many songs about the past describe warm memories of happy and innocent times in rural or small town settings.The persistent image of one of the happiest and least troubled times in American history has been derived largely from these songs.Compare those images to today's music which is mostly in an urban setting with very disturbing and violent images.Tin Pan Alley was not about love peace and happiness, it was about selling songs.There were no altruistic desires on the part of the publishers to solve the problems of society nor were they attempting to create a happy worldprovide musical entertainment that allowed people to escape the realities of the hardships of life and their own life's troubles.
30 Tin Pan Alleythe publishers of Tin Pan Alley not only established an industry that continues in grand tradition but they also are responsible for the beautiful music and covers we enjoy todaywhat remains of Tin Pan Alley was put up for sale and the buildings will most probably be razed to make way for "progress."The buildings, at 47, 49, 51, 53 and 55 West 28th Street, are being sold as a group for - hold on to your hat in these cacophonous economic times - a mere $44 million."
32 The Minstrel Showa theatrical entertainment consisting of songs, dances, comic turns, etc., performed by a troupe of actors wearing black face make-uptroupe, company - organization of performers and associated personnelcorner man, end man - a man at one end of line of performers in a minstrel show; carries on humorous dialogue with the interlocutorinterlocutor, middleman - the performer in the middle of a minstrel line who engages the others in talkminstrel - a performer in a minstrel show
33 The Minstrel ShowThe most popular musical stage shows of the early and mid 19th Century,In the US they began in the 1840sBoth white and black performers donned blackface, and audiences of all colors loved it.minstrel shows were the first form of musical theatre that was 100% American-born and bred.performing songs and skits that sentimentalized the nightmare of slave life on Southern plantationsBy the end of the Civil War the minstrel show had become world famous and respectableBetween 1750 and 1843, over 5,000 theater and circus productions included blackface.
34 The Minstrel ShowSome of the most famous songs in American history--Dixie, Camp town Races, Oh Susannah, My Old Kentucky Home--began as minstrel songs.Thomas "Daddy" Rice caused a nationwide sensation by donning burnt cork to perform the song "Jump Jim Crow" on stage."Jim Crow" turned out to be more than a popular song. It became the name of one of minstrelsy's stock comedy characters, and a by-word for legalized racial oppression.three stock characters were among several that reappeared in minstrel shows throughout the nineteenth century."Jim Crow" was the stereotypical carefree slave"Mr. Tambo" a joyous musician,Zip Coon" a free black attempting to "put on airs" or rise above his station
36 The Minstrel ShowDan Emmett, Frank Bower, Frank Pelham and Billy Whitlock became the first troupe to offer a full evening of blackface variety entertainment.Most historians mark this production as the beginning of minstrelsy.Most of the entertainment was improvisedThey insulted each other, they baited each other, they made mincemeat of the language, they took the audience into their fun, and, in one night, they added a new form to show business in America
37 The Minstrel Showin the twentieth century, several of the most famous minstrels were actually black me who wore makeup--the most famous being Bert Williams, who performed in blackface into the 1920s.The first talking picture, "The Jazz Singer," (1927) was a blackface filmMinstrel shows continued to be popular well into the 1950s,High schools, fraternities and local theater groups would often perform minstrel shows in blackface.It became unpopular as African Americans asserted more political power in the 1950s.
38 The Minstrel ShowThe long-running radio series Amos n' Andy featured two white actors impersonating contemporary black characters that were direct descendants of "Zip Coon" and "Jim Crow.“Stephen Foster- American song writer of Camp town Races," "My Old Kentucky Home," "O SusannaMinstrel star Dan Emmett composed the unofficial Southern anthem "Dixie.George M. Cohan and Irving Berlin.Al Jolson- most famous actor who got his start in a minstrel showJolson immortalized blackface in several films, including the talking landmark The Jazz Singer (1928).
39 The Minstrel Show Al Jolson had dozens of top selling recordings Jolson said that blackface gave him the emotional freedom he needed to take risks as a performerIn the first half of the 20th Century, he was billed as "The World's Greatest Entertainer“last star of minstrelsylegend in vaudeville,Al Jolson had dozens of top selling recordingsBecame the first talking film starWas a popular presence on network radio.
40 The Minstrel ShowThe bizarre minstrel show might be easier to understand in modern terms.Think of white rappers, or white rock musicians who play blues-derived music.When they imitate black musicians, are they expressing admiration, or are they just stealing?Are they sincerely trying to come to some understanding of cultural difference, or are they just engaging in minstrel parody without the make upSimilarly, are black musicians who play to a predominantly white audience, particularly those produced by Sean "Puffy" Combs, doing something similar to what Bert Williams did?
41 VaudevilleIn the 1880’s after the Industrial Revolution, people started to concentrate in cities and towns instead of rural communitiesLooking for higher paying jobs and more opportunities of successWorked hard and long hours and wanted to be entertained after hoursvariety shows were too coarse for women or children to attend,minstrel shows were already declining in popularityIn a world where phonographs, film, radio and television did not yet exist, something new was needed to fill the gap.Vaudeville also tried to bridge a social gap that had divided American audiencesVaudeville was developed by entrepreneurs seeking higher profits from a wider audience.
42 Vaudeville Tony Pastor-Invented Vaudeville in 1881 music and comedy" designed for family audiencesPastor showcased the finest talents on the variety stage, giving crucial opportunities to future starsPastor never expanded beyond his small theatre near Union Square.A place families could call home for their entertainmentPastor's "clean" variety show was an instant success, drawing an enthusiastic audience from all age groups and classes – including some of the most influential people in New York.
43 VaudevilleBenjamin Franklin Keith and Edward F Albee made a quick fortune with unauthorized productions of Gilbert and Sullivan operettas.started build a chain of ornate theatres across the northeastern United Statesthey instituted a policy of continuous multiple daily performances, which they called "vaudeville."vaudeville spread through the United States, major theatre chains or circuits were builtBy 1907 Vaudeville was earning $30 million a yearA successful act toured for forty or more weeks a year, doing "one nighters," split-weeks or weekly stands depending on a theatre’s size
44 VaudevilleIn 1919, when the average factory worker earned less than $1,300, a small time circuit performer playing a forty-two week season at $75 per week earned $3,150 a year.The most celebrated vaudeville house of the early 1900s was New York's VictoriaThe Orpheum Circuit- The Palace TheatreAn act could be anything that was inoffensive and entertaining. A performer's gender, race and appearance were no barrier to success,While singers and dancers were part of every bill, the specialty acts set vaudeville apart
45 Vaudeville mind readers instrumentalists escape artists flash acts - any "showy" act boasting its own lavish set, a large chorus, special effects, etc.high diversquick-change artistsstrong menliving statuarycontortionistsbalancing actsfreak acts - anyone acting crazy or silly - eccentric dancers, etc.
46 Vaudeville Douglas Fairbanks Judy Garland George Burns HoudiniHadji Ali would swallow water & kerosene, then spew kerosene onto open flames, followed by the water to put the flames out. Not pretty, but audiences were fascinated.W.C. FieldsWill RogersBabe RuthDouglas FairbanksJudy GarlandGeorge BurnsAbbot & CostelloThe Three StoogesKate SmithMickey Rooney
47 Vaudeville As stars got more popular they went on to bigger projects Movies started to gain popularityaudiences tastes changed and vaudeville theaters started to change over to movie theaters1930’s talking moviesGreat Depressionvaudeville singers and comics found a new home on radio, where "variety shows" offered something like audio vaudevilleVaudeville led to the immergence of family friendly entertainment on radio, television, and moviesEd Sullivan ShowLeave it to beaverCarol Burnet showVaudeville was precursor to Broadway and Motion Pictures
48 TOBA Theater Owners and Booking Agency Black version of Vaudeville vaudeville had black and white performers sharing the same stage as early as the 1890sMost southern states did not allow blacks and whites to sit in the same theatrethe only venues below the Mason-Dixon Line that welcomed "colored" customers in the early part of the 20th Centuryoffered all-black bills for all-black audiencesIt was the only way they could reach the appreciative black audiences of the deep South
50 TOBA Ethel Waters - who went on to Broadway and film stardom Ma Rainey - jazz vocalistBert Williams - Ziegfeld Follies starBessie Smith - jazz vocalistBill "Bojangles"Robinson - tap dance legendMany jazz artists got their start in TOBAblack audiences saw the same kinds of acts found in standard vaudevilleFaded in popularity due to the Great Depression
51 Jim Crow Laws1865- Period called reconstruction Government provided civil right protection for African Americans1877- End of reconstruction and withdraw of federal troops from the southLegislature of the south passed the Jim Crow LawsProhibited African Americans from using same facilities as whitesSupported racial segregationJim Crow comes from minstrel song called Jump Jim Crow written in 1828 performed by Thomas Dartmouth “Daddy” Rice1896-Plessy vs. Ferguson-resulted in 58 years of legal discrimination1954 Brown vs. Board of Education - Thurgood Marshal1954- Supreme court overturned Plessy vs Ferguson1964-Modern Civil Rights Act