3 In the early 1920s, African American artists, writers, musicians, and performers were part of a great cultural movement known as the Harlem Renaissance.The huge migration to the North after World War I brought African Americans of all ages and walks of life to the thriving New York City neighborhood called Harlem.Doctors, singers, students, musicians, shopkeepers, painters, and writers, congregated, forming a vibrant mecca of cultural affirmation and inspiration.
4 W.E.B. Du Bois was a famous writer of the Harlem Renaissance Duke Ellington and his orchestraIn the 1920’s, large numbers of African American musicians, artists , and writers settled in Harlem. This period of time became known as the Harlem Renaissance. During the Harlem Renaissance young black artists celebrated their African and American heritage.4
5 THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE Great Migration saw hundreds of thousands of African Americans move north to big cities1920:5 million of the nation’s 12 million blacks (over 40%) lived in citiesMigration of the Negro by Jacob Lawrence
6 Demographical Changes Demographics: statistics that describe a population.Migration NorthAfrican Americans moving north at rapid pace.Why?Jim Crow lawsNew job opportunities in north1860 – 93% in south1930 – 80% in southStruggles:Faced hatred from whitesForced low wages
7 African Americans Move North 1865: 93% of African Americans lived in the South.1930: 80%BUTJobs weren’t much better in the NorthRacial hatred in NorthWomen often worked as low-paid domestics.
8 HARLEM, NEW YORK Harlem, NY became the largest black urban community Harlem suffered from overcrowding, unemployment and povertyHome to literary and artistic revival known as the Harlem Renaissance
9 LANGSTON HUGHESMissouri-born Langston Hughes was the movement’s best known poetMany of his poems described the difficult lives of working-class blacks“Thank you Ma’am”Some of his poems were put to music, especially jazz and blues
10 LOUIS ARMSTRONG Jazz was born in the early 20th century In 1922, a young trumpet player named Louis Armstrong joined the Creole Jazz Band.Armstrong is considered the most important and influential musician in the history of jazz
11 EDWARD KENNEDY “DUKE” ELLINGTON In the late 1920s, Duke Ellington, a jazz pianist and composer, led his ten-piece orchestra at the famous Cotton Club.Band: “The Washingtonians”Ellington won renown as one of America’s greatest composers.
12 BESSIE SMITHBessie Smith, blues singer, was perhaps the most outstanding vocalist of the decadeShe achieved enormous popularity and by 1927 she became the highest- paid black artist in the world
14 Jazz ClubsArtie Shaw – First to use black musicians for white audiences.Benny Goodman – First to take jazz to white America.SWINGFirst racial mixed band.
15 Jazz Clubs and Dance Halls To hear the “real” jazz – NYC and the neighborhood of Harlem.500 jazz clubsCotton Club the most famousBUTMost white Americans did not want to hear jazz.
16 AFRICAN AMERICAN GOALS Founded in 1909, the NAACP urged African Americans to protest racial violenceW.E.B Dubois, a founding member, led a march of 10,000 black men in NY to protest violence
17 Garvey represented a more radical approach MARCUS GARVEY - UNIAMarcus Garvey believed that African Americans should build a separate society (Africa)In 1914, Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement AssociationGarvey claimed a million members by the mid-1920sPowerful legacy of black pride, economic independence and Pan-AfricanismGarvey represented a more radical approach
18 W.E.B. Dubois Didn’t think the answer was separation of the races. Also didn’t approve of Garvey’s business practices.