Presentation on theme: "Answer the following in your openers… 11. What happens to the amplitude of a pulse as it travels down the slinky and back? 12. What happens to the speed."— Presentation transcript:
Answer the following in your openers… 11. What happens to the amplitude of a pulse as it travels down the slinky and back? 12. What happens to the speed of a pulse as it travels down the slinky and back? 13. What have you observed about a pulse after it reaches the end of the medium that is fixed in place (like when held by someone’s hand)? 14. What do you think would happen to a pulse after it reached the end of a medium that is free to move? 15. What would happen to a wave pulse on a spring if it encountered a new spring with different characteristics?
When a pulse encounters a medium boundary 2 things happen… Reflection Some energy of the wave pulse is bounced back into the original medium. Transmission Some energy of the wave pulse passes through the boundary into the new medium
Fixed End Reflection At a fixed boundary, waves are inverted as they are reflected.
Free End Reflection At a free boundary, waves are reflected on the same side of equilibrium
Transmission If the wave pulse goes from… Low density High density medium Reflected pulse is inverted Transmitted pulse is upright High density Low density medium Reflected pulse is upright Transmitted pulse is upright
What happens when wave pulses move through a medium at the same time?
When this occurs, waves are said to experience interference
Wave Interference is described by the Superposition Principle…
1.Wave pulses (energy) pass through each other completely unaffected
Wave Interference is described by the Superposition Principle… 1.Wave pulses (energy) pass through each other completely unaffected 2.The medium will be displaced an amount equal to the vector sum of what the waves would have done individually – This results in two different types of interference: constructive and destructive
Constructive Interference Pulses must meet when on the same side of equilibrium. The resultant displacement of the medium is greater than both originals
Destructive Interference Pulses must meet when on opposite sides of equilibrium. The resultant displacement of the medium is less than at least one original
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/j w/waves_superposition_reflection.htm#super position http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/j w/waves_superposition_reflection.htm#super position
Standing Waves An interference pattern (alternating constructive and destructive) that results when incident wave pulses encounter reflected pulses traveling the opposite way through the medium
Standing wave parts Node – point that maintains zero displacement, complete destructive interference Antinode – point at which largest displacement occurs, constructive interference
Standing waves Only specific frequency- wavelength combinations will produce standing wave patterns in a given medium.
Relationship between frequency and wavelength Wavelength vs. FrequencyWavelength vs. 1/Frequency
From the standing wave lab… Frequency and wavelength are inversely proportional for a wave in a given medium. v = f v – velocity of wave (constant for a given medium) – wavelength, length of a single wave cycle also how far the wave travels in a single period f – frequency of the wave
Frequency and Period Frequency – “how often” wave cycles occur - # of cycles per unit of time - 1 Hertz (Hz) = 1 cycle per second Period – time it takes to complete 1 wave cycle Frequency and period are inverses of each other… f = 1/T or T = 1/f