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Describe a Wave

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Chapter 14 Waves & Energy Transfer

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Wave A rhythmic disturbance that carries energy through matter

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Wave Pulse A single bump or disturbance that travels through a medium

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Continuous Wave The rhythmic disturbance that travels through a medium

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Types of Waves

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Transverse Wave A wave that vibrates perpendicular to the wave motion

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Transverse Wave A good representation would be a sine wave

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Longitudinal Wave A wave that vibrates parallel to the wave motion

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Longitudinal Wave A good representation would be a slinky

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Surface Wave A wave that travels on the border of two mediums

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Surface Wave Have both transverse & longitudinal characteristics

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Surface Wave Good examples are swells or surface water waves

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Mechanical Waves Waves that require a medium

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Electromagnetic Waves Waves that do not require a medium

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Ray A vector representing the wave & its direction

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Measuring Waves

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Wave Speed How fast a wave is moving through a medium

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Wave Speed v = d/ t

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Wave Speed Measured in m/s

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Wave Speed All waves move at a constant speed in a given medium

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Crest Trough Amplitude Wavelength ( )

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The distance between corresponding points in a wave

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Wavelength ( ) Measured in m or some form of m

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Displacement The perpendicular distance a wave vibrates from zero

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Amplitude The maximum displacement a wave vibrates from zero

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Frequency (f)( ) The number of waves per unit time

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Frequency Measured in hertz (Hz) (cycles/s or waves/s)

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Period (T) The time measured in (s) for one wave to pass or the time for one cycle

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Frequency Period Formula T = 1/f

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Wave Velocity Formula v = f

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You are 525 m from a clock tower. You hear a clock’s chime at 436 Hz in 1.50 s. Calculate: v, T, & of the sound wave

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You shout towards a wall 0.685 km away producing a 75 cm wave. You hear the echo in 4.00 s. Calculate: v, T, & f

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Surface Waves At wave boundaries exhibiting both transverse & longitudinal properties

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Wave Speed All waves move at a constant speed in a given medium

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Waves passing from one medium to another

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Incident Wave The waves that strikes a boundary of a given medium

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Reflected Wave The waves that bounces off the boundary & returns

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Transmitted Wave The waves that passes from one medium to another

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Wave Behavior When waves pass from one medium to another they are both transmitted & reflected

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Radio waves travel at 3.00 x 10 8 m/s. Calculate the wavelength of your favorite radio station.

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Wave Behavior Waves transmitted from one medium to another stay in phase or do not invert

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Wave Behavior The amplitude change in both transmitted waves & reflected waves is dependent on % transmitted

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Wave Behavior When colliding with a more dense medium, reflected waves invert

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Wave Behavior When colliding with a less dense medium, reflected waves stay erect or in phase

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Wave Behavior When waves pass from one medium to another of, the frequency remains constant

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Wave Behavior When waves pass from one medium to another of different density, the speed changes

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Wave Behavior The speed of longitudinal waves is proportional to the density of the medium

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Wave Behavior The speed of transverse waves is inversely proportioned to the density of the medium

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Wave Behavior v = f, thus is inversely proportioned to f

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A tsunami is formed 1800 km away producing a 60 ft tidal wave that strikes shore 3.0 hr later. Calculate: v wave in m/s

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Interference The effect of two or more waves passing through a medium simultaneously

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Principle of Superposition At the point where 2 or more waves meet, the total displacement is the sum of all the individual displacements

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Constructive Interference When the interference of waves is crest to crest

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Constructive Interference Will result in waves of larger amplitude

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Destructive Interference When the interference of waves is crest to trough

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Destructive Interference Will result in waves of smaller amplitude

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Node A point in a medium that goes through no displacement when waves pass through each other

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Node A point in a medium that goes through no displacement when waves pass through each other

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Antinode A point in a medium that goes through maximum displacement when waves pass through each other

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Standing Wave The result of identical waves moving in opposite directions

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Standing Wave A guitar string is a good example

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Waves in Two Dimensions

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Reflected Wave When a wave bounces off a wave boundary

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Law of Reflection When a wave strikes a boundary at an angle other than normal, the reflected angle equal the angle of incident

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Law of Reflection reflection = incident

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Refraction When a wave strikes a boundary at an angle other than normal, the angle of the transmitted ray is changed

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Refraction The bending of waves passing from one medium to another due to speed change

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Less Dense Medium More Dense Medium Normal

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Diffraction The bending of waves around a barrier

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Diffraction When a wave passes through a small opening, the wave will exit in a semi-circular pattern

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Three waves (1.0 m, 0.60 m, & 0.50 m) pass simultaneously through a medium. Calculate maximum & minimum displacement:

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Red light with a wavelength of 600.0 nm travels through space at 3.00 x 10 8 m/s. Calculate its: frequency & period

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A 60.0 Hz note from a base guitar travels through a hot room at 360 m/s. Calculate its: wavelength & period

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A series of 6.0 ft waves move towards an island. Determine the side of the island where the waves will be the largest. Front of back

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Three waves (2.0 m, 1.5 m, & 1.2 m) pass simultaneously through a medium. Calculate maximum & minimum displacement:

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Blue light with a wavelength of 450 nm travels through space at 3.00 x 10 8 m/s. Calculate its: frequency & period

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An 85 Hz note from a bass guitar travels through a room at 340 m/s. Calculate its: wavelength & period

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Island Phenomenon

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Answer the questions on page 268 & 269, and work problems a on page 269.

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