Presentation on theme: "Forces Ch. 6 Milbank High School. Sec 6.1 Force and Motion ► Objectives Define a force and differentiate between contact forces and long-range forces."— Presentation transcript:
Sec 6.1 Force and Motion ► Objectives Define a force and differentiate between contact forces and long-range forces Recognize the significance of Newton’s second law of motion and use it to solve motion problems Explain the meaning of Newton’s first law and describe an object in equilibrium
The Forces of Nature I. I. Gravitational: attraction bet. masses tides, gravity, weight II. II. Electromagnetic: friction tension adhesion lift electrostatic drag buoyant magnetic III. III. Weak Nuclear: helps to explain atomic collisions IV. IV. Strong Nuclear: binds atomic nuclei
Force ► How do forces influence motion? ► Force– a push or pull exerted on an object having magnitude and direction ► System—object that experiences the force ► Environment—world around the system that exerts the force
Two Categories of Forces… ► Contact Force Acts on an object only by touching it ► Long-Range Force Exerted without contact ► Magnets ► Gravity Agent: a specific, identifiable, immediate cause of a force
Types of Forces ► F f - - Friction (opposes sliding) ► F N - - Normal (surface) ► F sp - - Spring (push or pull of a spring) ► F T - - Tension (spring, rope, cable) ► F thrust - - Thrust (rockets, planes, cars) ► F g - - Weight (force due to gravity)
Representing Forces... ► Forces are vectors Forces are drawn as arrows (vectors) forces add like vectors. the sum of all the forces is called the net force. ► A picture of a body with arrows drawn representing all the forces acting upon it is called a FREE BODY DIAGRAM.
Draw free body diagrams for the following ► An egg is free-falling from a nest in a tree. Neglect air resistance. ► A skydiver is descending with a constant velocity. Consider air resistance. ► A car is coasting to the right and slowing down.
Newton’s Second Law ► F = ma ► a = F net / m ► Expressed in Newtons (N) Force required to give 1kg mass a 1m/s 2 acceleration
Example ► A race car has a mass of 710 kg. It starts from rest and travels 40.0 m in 3.0 s. The car is uniformly accelerated during the entire time. What net force is exerted on it?
Newton’s First Law of Motion ► “An object that is at rest will remain at rest or an object that is moving will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed, if and only if the net force acting on that object is zero.”
Newton’s First Con’t ► Inertia—the tendency of an object to resist change. ► Equilibrium—object at rest or moving at a constant velocity
Finally…Misconceptions about forces ► When a ball has been throw, the force of the hand that threw it remains on it. ► A force is needed to keep an object moving ► Inertia is a force ► Air does not exert a force ► The quantity ma is a force
Sec. 6.2 Using Newton’s Laws ► Objectives Describe how the weight and the mass of an object are related Differentiate between the gravitational force weight and what is experienced as apparent weight Define the friction force and distinguish between static and kinetic friction Describe simple harmonic motion and explain how the acceleration due to gravity influences such motion.
Mass and Weight ► The weight force, F g, is used to find the downward force of an object. ► Both the net force and acceleration are downward. F g = mg
Example Problems ► Pg. 128 ► Practice Problem 12. Pg. 129
Friction ► Static friction force The force that opposes the start of relative motion between the two surfaces in contact ► Friction force with object isn’t in motion ► Kinetic Friction Force The force that opposes relative motion between surfaces in contact ► Friction force when object is in motion
Calculating Friction Kinetic Friction Force F f, kinetic = µ k F n Static Friction Force 0< F f, static < µ s F N
Typical Coefficients of Friction Surfaceµ s µ k Rubber on concrete0.800.65 Rubber on wet concrete0.600.40 Wood on wood0.500.20 Steel on steel (dry)0.780.58 Steet on steel (with oil)0.150.06 Teflon on steel0.040.04
Terminal Velocity ► The constant velocity that is reached when the drag force equals the force of gravity ► Objects can only fall so fast due to their size and shape and density of the air/fluid Ping-pong ball – 9 m/s Basketball – 20 m/s Baseball – 42 m/s Skydiver: >62 m/s w/o chute 5 m/s w/ chute 5 m/s w/ chute
Periodic Motion ► Pendulums, springs, strings ► Simple Harmonic Motion Motion that returns an object to its equilibrium position as a result of a restoring force that is directly proportional to the object’s displacement ► Period (T) Time needed to repeat one complete cycle of motion ► Amplitude Maximum distance the object moves from equilibrium
Amplitude, Frequency, Period The Amplitude is the displacement. The Frequency is the number of cycles/sec. The Period is the time for one cycle T = 1/f
Sec. 6.3 Interaction Forces ► Objectives Explain the meaning of interaction pairs of forces and how they are related by Newton’s third law List the four fundamental forces and illustrate the environment in which each can be observed. Explain the tension in ropes and strings in terms of Newton’s third law
Interaction forces ► Two forces that are in opposite directions and have equal magnitude ► Newton’s Third Law—all forces come in pairs ► F A on B = -F B on A