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Forces: Newton’s Laws of Motion Chapters 6 & 7

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Any push or pull exerted on an object. The object is the system The forces exerted on the system is the environment. Force

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Contact: acts on an object by touching it. Long-Range: exerted without contact. Gravity Cause of a force is the agent. Contact vs. Long-Range Forces

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“An obect that is at rest will remain at rest or an object that is moving will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed, if and only if the net force acting on the object is zero” Sir Isaac Newton Law of Inertia. Inertia is the tendency of an object not to accelerate. Equilibrium: occurs if the net force on an object is zero. Newton’s 1 st Law of Motion

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The object is at rest, or moving at a constant velocity. Net force is anything that disturbs a state of equilibrium Table 6-2 pg. 123 Newton’s 1 st Law of Motion

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A force is needed to keep an object moving. Inertia is a force. Air does not exert a force When an object is thrown, the force of the hand that throws it remains with the object. Force Misconceptions

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If an outside force is applied to an object, the object will accelerate. a= F net/m Net force is the vector sum of two or more forces on an object. Weightlessness: no contact forces are acting upon an object. Newton’s 2 nd Law of Motion

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Friction is an opposing force acting on an object. Second force acting in the opposite direction of the applied force on an object. Static friction: occurs when there is no relative motion. Kinetic friction: occurs when there is relative motion. Friction

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Frictionlike force exerted when an object moves through a fluid. Force depends on the speed of the motion. Faster the motion, the greater the force. Air Drag

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Initially, it has very little velocity and only a small drag force Gravity is stronger than the upward drag force, so there is downward acceleration As the object’s velocity increases, so does the drag force. Drag force will equal force of gravity. No net force, no acceleration. Velocity becomes constant. Terminal Velocity When dropping an object

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Simple harmonic motion: occurs when the force that restores the object to equilibrium is directly proportional to the displacement of the object. Period: time needed to repeat one complete cycle of motion. Amplitude: maximum distance that the object moves from equilibrium Periodic Motion

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Pendulum: demonstrates periodic motion Mechanical Resonance: increase in amplitude, occurs when small forces are applied at regular intervals to a vibrating or oscillating object. Periodic Motion

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“For every action, there is an equal, opposite reaction” Interactive forces: two forces that are “equal and opposite” F A on B = -F A on B Newton’s 3 rd Law of Motion

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Gravitational Force Magnetic Strong Nuclear Force Weak Nuclear Force Four Fundamental Forces

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