Presentation on theme: "Module 4 TED 356 Curriculum in Sec. Ed.. Module 4 Explain the current official federal and state standards, including professional and accrediting groups."— Presentation transcript:
Module 4 Explain the current official federal and state standards, including professional and accrediting groups specific to certain content areas, which govern secondary level curriculum (i.e., what is to be taught), including PDE’s Chapter 4, the Pennsylvania Assessment System.
Reading Read the following in the Duplass textbook: –Topic 3: “Standards-based Education” Refer to the following as needed: –Unit 8 (Topics 41-45)
Background to Standards-based Education National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983) –Labeled middle and high school curriculum “the rising tide of mediocrity.” –Concerns about literacy. An Educational Manifesto by the Center for Educational Reform (1998) –No improvement in 15 years since.
Background to Standards-based Education Dissatisfaction with public school education led to Federal Initiatives: –Desegregation ruling, Brown v. Board of Education (1954) –Head Start program (1964) –Individuals with Disabilities Act (1975) –Latest legislation: No Child Left Behind Act (2001)
Background to Standards-based Education First curriculum standards: NCTM developed curriculum standards for mathematics education in 1989. –Led to support for national goals in education endorsed by National Governors Association. –National Council on Education Standards and Testing recommended national standards for subject matter content in K-12. Goals 2000: Educate America Act (1994, amended with an Appropriations act in 1996): Encouraged states to set standards.
Background to Standards-based Education Other professional organizations had already been at work at developing standards. –Represent the best thinking by expert panels, including teachers. –Describe essential elements of a basic core of subject knowledge that all students should acquire. –Voluntary guidelines to encourage curriculum development to promote higher student achievement. –State and local curriculum developers decide what is included.
Professional Organizations by Discipline English –National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) Math –National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Science –National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Social Studies/Citizenship Education –National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Unit 8 (Topics 42-45) in the textbook describes numerous professional organizations and journals appropriate to your content area major.
No Child Left Behind Act (2001) Redefines federal role in K-12 education. Intended to close gap between disadvantaged & minorities and their peers.
No Child Left Behind Act (2001) Based on 4 basic principles: –Stronger accountability for results. –Increased flexibility and local control. –Expanded options for parents. –Emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work. In essence, the federal government is trying to make education more competitive. In a competitive environment, organizations usually strive to improve as they compete.
NCLB: Accountability Standards Standards –“Adequate yearly progress” in 5 major ethnic categories, students with low socioeconomic status (SES), disabled students, and students of limited English proficiency. –Disaggregated data focuses the standards on the students who have usually been left behind. –Most of the states are adopting high-stakes testing.
NCLB: Accountability Standards Consequences –Students in failing schools are granted the right to transfer, and the schools must provide transportation. –After three years, schools must offer free tutoring. –After four years of failing to make the passing grade, schools could be forced to close and reopen with completely new staff.
NCLB: Accountability Standards Impact –Schools need to be more attentive to students and their families to keep them from being “left behind”. –All teachers, regardless of subject matter, must focus more on reading, writing, and math skills.
How Do Our Local Schools Perform? View School District “Report Cards”
NCLB: Problem Under NCLB, states establish their own standards, but they are held accountable for meeting those standards. Will some states purposely set lower standards to ensure their school districts meet the standards?
What Do You Think? Do you agree with the approach of the NCLB legislation to improve schools? What reforms do you think are necessary in schools in light of the strengths and weaknesses of your own secondary education experiences? Discussion
PA Standards In 1999, PA adopted academic standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Mathematics. –These standards identify what a student should know and be able to do at varying grade levels. School districts possess the freedom to design curriculum and instruction to ensure that students meet or exceed the standards' expectations.
PSSA The annual Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) is a standards based criterion-referenced assessment used to: –Measure a student's attainment of the academic standards. –Determine the degree to which school programs enable students to attain proficiency of the standards. Reading and math: grades 3 - 8 and grade 11. Writing: grades 5, 8, and 11. PSSA Calendar
Teacher Preparation Standards Chapter 354: General Standards And Specific Program Guidelines for Teacher Preparation –Provides an overview of how teachers in each content area should be prepared in TED. –What should future teachers be able to teach? (What is taught in college?) Chapter 354
PA Standards How Do Districts Implement? State defines academic standards. Curriculum professionals in each district/building work with teachers to define a curriculum guide/course of study for the district. –Based on state academic standards and curriculum standards from professional organizations. Teachers base units and lessons on the standards as defined by the school district. –Teachers are held accountable for teaching the standards.
The Process State defines academic standards. Curriculum professionals in each district/building. Teachers base units and lessons on district standards. State standards. Curriculum standards from professional organizations.
Example Greater Nanticoke Area School District Greater Nanticoke Area
What Standards Apply to You? Biology Chemistry Citizenship –History –Economics –Geography –Civics and Government English Mathematics
Review Background to standards-based education No Child Left Behind (2001) PA Standards: How are they implemented in districts? Chapter 354: What are you expected to know when you graduate TED? Which standards apply to your field?
For the Next Class Download the following two documents: –A hard copy of Pennsylvania’s State Standards (i.e., PDE’s Chapter 4) that govern your area of specialization (Citizenship teachers have several areas). –A hard copy of the standards for your area promulgated by your field’s professional organization (e.g., NCSS, NCTM, etc.).