Presentation on theme: "EDU 221. Group Presentation Reflections due for 7 & 8 Quiz #2 (Tuesday, Nov. 16 th ) – Problem- based ◦ What makes an outstanding response? Referring."— Presentation transcript:
Group Presentation Reflections due for 7 & 8 Quiz #2 (Tuesday, Nov. 16 th ) – Problem- based ◦ What makes an outstanding response? Referring to our text, study results, outside info ◦ Bring your Bluebooks… Chapter 10 Group Presentation Effective Teaching cont. No Child Left Behind
A “gap” (difference) in academic achievement between minority and disadvantaged students and middle/upper class white students in the United States To include students: ◦ from economically disadvantaged families ◦ from minority ethnic and racial groups- blacks, Hispanics, and native populations ◦ with limited English proficiency ◦ with disabilities (i.e., special populations)
The average 8 th -grade minority student scores at about the same level as the average white 4 th- grader. The gap between white students and black and Latino students on high school exit exams averages points in most states. About 1 in 6 Native American 8 th- grader is proficient in reading and 1 in 7 is proficient in math. Socio-economic status remains the most powerful single influence on students’ educational outcomes. Most of the social class differences in average academic potential exists by the time children are 3 years old. 13.6% of all children 6-17 in U.S. receive SPED related services 50% of students who test out of Special Education in a given year re-qualify for services the following year.
Achievement gaps in NAEP results American Indian 8th grade students 3x likely to score Below Basic in Reading. Free and Reduced Lunch 2x likely to Score Below Basic 52% American Indian scored Below Basic in MTH compared to 16% for white students Low income students 3x likely to score Below Basic in MTH 34% American Indian HS grads completed ACT core, as compared to 40% Hispanic, 50% white students ACT composite for American Indian students 18.6; 23.6 for white students
School Based Reasons for The Achievement Gap Schools with many low-income and minority students generally have: Fewer instructional resources Fewer and lower quality books Fewer qualified and experienced teachers Fewer course offerings Significantly larger class sizes Tracking systems that segregate these students within school
Intent of NCLB: No Child Left Behind is designed to change the culture of America's schools by closing the achievement gap, offering more flexibility, giving parents more options, and teaching students based on what works.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
ALL students will attain proficiency or better in reading and mathematics by ALL limited English students will become proficient in English ALL teachers will be highly qualified by ALL students will be educated in safe, drug-free environments ALL students will graduate from high school
Annual reading and math assessments at grades 3-8 Science assessments ◦ Once in grades 3-5, 6-9, and Limited English students must be assessed annually for English language proficiency
Test data are used to measure performance of each school to determine the school’s Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). Every state sets their own standards by which AYP will be measured. States must use student performance on annual assessments in reading and math as the primary measures of AYP. The starting point is based on the achievement data.
To achieve AYP, a school must meet or exceed Annual Measurable Objectives (AMOs) schoolwide and for each student subgroup: economically disadvantaged major ethnic and racial groups students with disabilities English language learners Note: Science testing will not count toward AYP
% 95% 90% 85% 80% 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50% 45% 40% Baseline Target % Target Adequate Yearly Progress Example Students in School
◦ States will determine annual objectives for progress ◦ All subgroups (economically disadvantaged, major ethnic and racial groups, students with disabilities, and English language learners) must meet annual objectives for progress ◦ 95% of all students and all subgroups of students must be included in the assessment ◦ School may calculate 95% participation rate in tests over 2-3 years in determining this factor in the AYP ◦ All subgroups must meet 100% proficiency by
If one subgroup of students fails to meet the school’s AYP targets for two years in a row, the school is tagged as in need of improvement. Continued “need of improvement” will result in implementation of specific consequences Each consecutive year, corrective actions become more intensive
School Improvement Status- (Year 3 – After two consecutive years of not making AYP): ◦ Technical assistance ◦ Must provide public school choice ◦ Supplemental Services (tutoring) ◦ Two year School Improvement Plan ◦ 10% of Title I funds must be allocated for professional development
(Year 4 – After three consecutive years of not making AYP) Continue actions from previous years of school improvement ◦ Districts must take at least one of the following actions: Replace relevant school staff Implement a new curriculum and provide professional development Significantly decrease management authority Appoint outside expert to advise on school improvement plan Extend school year or school day Restructure internal organization of school
(Year 5- after four consecutive years of not making AYP) Restructuring: ◦ Continue activities from school improvement and corrective action ◦ Districts must take at least one of the following actions: Reopen school as a charter school Replace all or most of relevant school staff Contract with outside entity to operate school State takeover Any other major restructuring of school’s governance that makes fundamental reform
No Child Left Behind requires states to provide academic achievement awards to schools that close achievement gaps between groups of students or that exceed academic achievement goals. States may financially reward teachers in schools that receive academic achievement awards. States must designate as distinguished schools those that have made the greatest gains in closing the achievement gap or in exceeding achievement goals.
All students will be taught by highly qualified teachers in core academic areas English Economics Reading/Language Arts Civics/Government Mathematics Arts Science History Foreign languages Geography
All programs funded by NCLB must be grounded in scientifically based research. Characteristics of scientific research-based studies: ◦ Uses scientific method ◦ Has been replicated ◦ Can be generalized to larger population ◦ Meets rigorous standards ◦ Other studies/programs point to same conclusion
Curriculum based on state standards should be taught in the classroom. If teachers cover subject matter required by the standards and teach it well, then students will master the material on which they will be tested--and probably much more. In that case, students will need no special test preparation in order to do well.
29% increase in total Federal education funding (from $42.2 billion in 2001 to $54.4 billion in 2007); 33% increase in total K-12 funding (from $27.3 billion in 2001 to $36.3 billion in 2007); 40.4% increase in total NCLB funding (from $17.4 billion in 2001 to $24.4 billion in 2007); 45% increase in Title I (from $8.8 billion in 2001 to $12.7 billion in 2007); 68.5% increase for Special Education (IDEA) grants to states (from $6.34 billion in 2001 to $10.7 billion in 2007); and Quadrupled funding for reading (from $286 million in 2001 to $1.2 billion in 2007) (a 300% increase).
Based on national data from July 2005: ◦ America's nine-year-olds posted the best scores in reading (since 1971) and math (since 1973) in the history of the report. America's 13-year-olds earned the highest math scores the test ever recorded. ◦ Reading and math scores for African American and Hispanic nine-year-olds reached an all-time high. ◦ Math scores for African American and Hispanic 13- year-olds reached an all-time high.
Not all agree with the previous statistics States adjusting standards- differences by state Growth ignored- need to revise model Drop-out rate increasing Students appear less prepared for college
March 13, submitted to Congress Proposed Changes ◦ Name to revert back to ESEA ◦ Adopting National “core” standards ◦ Graduate college- or career-ready by 2020 ◦ “Race to the Top” rewards for successful reform ◦ Expand Charter Schools ◦ Allow differentiate compensation for educators who are effective in increasing achievement ◦ Required to “equalize” resources