2 Introduction – Overview of Research Process Types of ResearchResearch ProcessContemporary Issues in Public Admin ResearchConclusion
3 Types of Research Descriptive vs. Analytical Applied vs. Fundamental Quantitative vs. QualitativeConceptual vs. EmpiricalSome othersAction researchHistorical researchLaboratory research
4 Descriptive vs. Analytical Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.
5 Descriptive vs. Analytical In analytical research, on the other hand, the researcher has to use facts or information already available, and analyze these to make a critical evaluation of the material.
6 Applied vs. Fundamental: Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization. example marketing researchFundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory. research studies, concerning human behaviour carried on with a view to make generalizations about human behaviour, are also examples of fundamental research
7 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity.Quantitative research generates statistics through the use of large-scale survey research, using methods such as questionnaires or structured interviews.
8 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Quantitative research involves the collection of numerical data in order to explain, predict and control phenomena of interest, data analysis being mainly statistical. It involves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study.
9 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Qualitative research explores attitudes, behavior and experiences through such methods as interviews or focus groups. It attempts to get an in-depth opinion from participants.Qualitative research seeks to investigate deeply in to the research setting in order to obtain understandings about the ways things are, why they are that way, and how the participants in the context perceive them.
10 Quantitative vs. Qualitative Qualitative research is not predetermined or pre structured by hypotheses and procedures that might limit its focus, scope and operation.Qualitative research is embedded in a process of communication between researcher and respondent. There is no attention to establish independences of researcher from the respondent.
11 Conceptual vs. Empirical Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory. It is data-based research, coming up with conclusions which are capable of being verified by observation or experiment.
12 Some Other Types of Research All other types of research are variations of one or more of the above stated approaches, based on either the purpose of research, or the time required to accomplish research, on the environment in which research is done, or on the basis of some other similar factor.
13 Two Types of Empirical Research Theory testing empirical researchSurveys (interview, mail, internet, phone)Experiments (university setting)Quasi experiments: that there is no random assignment of participants to groups. (university or company)Secondary data (financial, operational, personnel)Theory building empirical researchQualitative research (interview, observation, text)Case methods (interviews, text, secondary data)
15 Research ProcessFormulate and clarify your research topic (define research problem)Critically review the literatureUnderstand your philosophy and approachFormulate your research designNegotiate access and address ethical issuesPlan your data collectionAnalyze your dataWrite your project report and prepare your presentationSubmit your project report and give your presentation
16 A Simplified Scientific Research Process and Types of Research QuestionDeductive research4. The empiricalstudy2. LiteraturereviewInductive researchTheoretical research3. Theory andHypothesesDescriptive research
20 Contemporary Issues in Public Admin Research Comparative public Administration issuesElectoral studies and public opinionFederalism/ State and LocalInternational Affairs/International relationsPublic PolicyFeminism/ participation of women in politicsFailure of state/ CorruptionPost conflict economic recovery using public private partnership
21 ConclusionDo’s`Very careful when you decide which type of research to chooseRead more about the research typesDon’tDeveloping a topic without considering problem statementNot following the right research process