Presentation on theme: "Research Methodology MGT - 3063 TYPES OF RESEARCH MR. I. MAYURRAN."— Presentation transcript:
1 Research MethodologyMGTTYPES OF RESEARCHMR. I. MAYURRAN
2 CONTENTS. Definition – Research. Types of Research. Natural ScienceSocial ScienceTypes of Research.ApplicationObjectiveInquiry ModeResearch ClassificationQuestion Time
3 Research - DefinitionBusiness research can be defined as the systematic and objective process of gathering , recording and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions.Putting some light in the unknown areas of knowledge for your enlightenment to that particular area of knowledgeThe purpose of research isto find a solution to a particular type of problem.Showing the problem a direction towards solution orto understand our reality more clearly.“Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge” Redman and Mory.
4 Natural Science Pure Research Applied Research ANIMAL CARE MEDI CARE DENTAL CAREMEDI CAREPure ResearchBOTANYZOLOGYDENTAL SCIENCEANIMAL SCIENCE
5 Social Science Applied Research Pure Research MARKETING GEOGRAOHY ECONOMICSHUMAN RESOURCEHRM
6 Types of Research1Application2Objective3Inquiry Mode
7 Application of the Research Study 11Application of the Research StudyPure ResearchApplied Research
8 Pure Research or Fundamental Research Pure Research is also known as basic or Fundamental research.It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice.Pure research offers solutions to many practical problemsEx: Maslow’s theory of motivationPure research develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution.Goal: Expand man’s knowledge (Eg :- which genes control social behavior of human beings? )
9 Applied Research or Action Research Applied Research or Action Research is carried out to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision a society or business faces.The researcher attempts to solve a known problem and find answers to specific questions.Aims at solving specific problems & establishing policy programs that will help to improve social life.Goal: To improve human condition (i.e., improve the world) (e.g., how to care cancers?)High impact examples: computers, transistors, vaccinations
10 Example for Applied Research A trucking company that is interested in predicting the tonnage of material shipped in the next quarter.ExamplePredicting the tonnage & determining which variables are good predictors of tonnage for the next quarter.Problem
11 Objectives in Undertaking the Research 22Objectives in Undertaking the Research2Descriptive ResearchExplanatory ResearchExploratory ResearchCausal Research
12 Descriptive ResearchUsually it forms preliminary study of a research project. It aims at describe social events, relations and eventsIt provides background information about an event in questionIt is deal with collecting data and answering questions or interviews or by observation (Survey type research).
13 Example for Descriptive Research To describe characteristics of relevant groupsTo estimate the % of units in a specified population exhibiting a certain behaviorTo determine the degree to which the marketing variables are associatedTo determine the perceptions of product characteristicsTo make specific predictionsExample for Descriptive Research
14 Explanatory Research or Analytical Research Analytical Research is primarily concerned with testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships, by analyzing the facts or information already available. (Cause-Effect).It aims at explaining social relations and events.To build, test or revise a theory.
15 Exploratory Research or Formulative Research It aims at gaining information about an issue in hand.Objective: to gather preliminary information that will help define problems and suggest hypotheses.Typical techniques used in exploratory research includeCase studies,ObservationHistorical analysisIn-depth interviewsFocus Group.
16 Causal Research EXAMPLE It aims at establishing cause and effect relationship among .The objective of causal research is to test hypotheses about cause-and-effect relationships..It is appropriate for the following purposes:To understand which variables are the cause (independent variables) and which variables are the effect (dependent variables) of a phenomenon.To determine the nature of relationship between the causal variables and the effect to be predicted.The main method of causal research is experimentation.EXAMPLE
18 Aimed at finding out the quality/kind of a particular phenomenon Qualitative Research‘Qualitative Research…involves finding out what people think, and how they feel - or at any rate, what they say they think and how they say they feel. This kind of information is subjective. It involves feelings and impressions, rather than numbers’It is based on methodological principals of phenomenology, symbolic, interactionism.It aims at exploration of social world. Following elements are thereAimed at finding out the quality/kind of a particular phenomenon
19 Quantitative Research Research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount. To collect and analyze data to explain, predict, or control phenomena of interestDescribe current conditionsInvestigate relationshipsStudy causes and effectsIt is based on methodological principals of positivism and neo positivism .It adheres to standards of strict research.Statistical analysis is used in it.
20 Other Types of Research One-time Research – Research confined to a single time period.Longitudinal Research – Research carried on over several time periods.Diagnostic Research – It is also called clinical research which aims at identifying the causes of a problem, frequency with which it occurs and the possible solutions for it.Theory Testing Research - It aims at testing validity of a theoryTheory Building Research - To establish and formulate theoryHistorical Research – The purpose of historical research is to arrive at conclusions concerning trends, causes or effects of past occurrences. This may help in explaining present events and anticipating future events.Conceptual Research - is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to develop new concepts or ideas to reinterpret existing ones.Empirical Research - is a data based research which depends on experience or observation alone. It is a data based research with verifiable conclusions.
21 RESEARCH CLASSIFICATION PURPOSEOUTCOMEPROCESSLOGICRESEARCH CLASSIFICATION
22 Purpose of The Research – The Reason Why It Was Conducted ExploratoryDescribe the ideas & insights.Ex:-Our sales are declining and we don’t know why?.Would people be interested in our new product idea?DescriptiveDescribe Market Characteristics or Function.What kind of people are buying our product? Who buys our competitor’s product?What features do buyers prefer in our product?CasualDetermine Cause & effect relationship.“Will buyers purchase more of our products in a new package?Which of two advertising campaigns is more effective?Based on Purpose
23 Process of The Research – The Way In Which The Data Were Collected And Analyzed BasicQualitativeQuantitativeTypes of QuestionProbingLimited probingSample SizeSmallLargeInfo. Per RespondentMuchVariesResearcher SkillsRequires, skilled researcherFewer specialist skills requiredTypes of AnalysisSubjective, interpretativeStatisticalTypes of ResearchExploratoryDescriptive or casualMethodInductiveDeductiveAccording to Process
24 According to Outcome Applied Pure Outcome Of The Research – Whether The Expected Outcome Is The Solution To A Particular Problem Or A More General Contribution To Knowledge.AppliedApplication in the "real world“.aims to address and answer real-world problems. Applied research builds on existing basic research.PureKnowledge for the sake of knowledge.fundamental bases of behavior.considered the foundation of knowledgeAccording to Outcome
25 According to Logic Deductive Inductive Logic Of The Research – Whether The Research Logic Moves From The General To The Specific Or Vice VersaTheoryHypothesisObservationConfirmationTheoryTentative HypothesisPatternObservationAccording to LogicDeductiveInductive